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Full text of "Bibilog, Temple of Israel; Oldest Jewish Congregation in North Carolina.."



Weitz, Martin M. Dr. 

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tEempIs of Israel 

Oldest Jewish Congregation in North Carolina 

ESTABLISHED MAY 12, 1876 
FOURTH AND MARKET STREETS 

POST OFFICE BOX 3451 
WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA 



Dr. Martin M. Weitz, Editor 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 
I. "IN THE BEGINNING" (Bereshith) 3 BT 

Dedication ToDr. Samuel S. Mendelsohn 2 

Cenrury-SagaOf "Temple of Israel" — Dr. Martin M. Weitz 4 

Rabbis At "Temple Of Israel" 1876 - 1976 (Excerpted Letters) 24 

Story Of Concordia Society (Sisterhood) — Lena Solomon Bear 27 

Remarks And Notes On Our Temple Today — Lilian S. Sternberger 29 

Biblical Garden — Mildred Solomon 31 

A Collage In Clippings — William Reaves 32 

The JewAnd The American Revolution — Dr. Jacob R. Marcus 34 

i 

II. "NOW THESE ARE THE NAMES" (Sh'Moth) 47 

Directory: Temple Membership 48 

III. "AND THE LORD CALLED" (Vayikro) 54 

Necrology: "We Remember Our Departed" 55 

Temple Memorial Tablets 58 

IV. "IN THE WILDERNESS OF SINAI" (B'Midbor) 60 

Select Decalogues For Our Day 61 

All Men Are A Brotherhood 64 



V. "THESE ARE THE WORDS" (D'Vorim) 65 

A Preface To Books 65 

Ancient Biblical Adages 66 

Popular Proverbs - Talmud 68 

Jewish Medieval Maxims 70 

Truisms For Today 71 

VI. CENTERFOLD FEATURE 

Photo Of Rabbis — 1922 - 1976 
Notes Prom Notables 

The Nation The State The City. . . 

The State Of Israel 

The Reform Movement 
Century Of Service Certificate 
Photo - Summer Parts' ( 1910"-') 

VII. COVER - CONTENTS 

Front Ronald Williams 

Inside - Front Washington's Letter To Jewish Congregations 

Inside - Back .Jewish Festivals For Five Years to 1981 



Dedication 




DR. SAMUEL MENDELSOHN 
Born: March 31, 1850 
Died: September 30, 1922 



To one who was a great student and a great teacher, 
an apostle of Aaron for peace, a disciple of Amos for 
justice, an interpreter of Maimonides for peace of 
mind, a translator of Haggai and author of a volume 
of Bible Law for his people, so that they learn from 
yesteryears for unborn tomorrows. 

To one who loved his faith dearly, and lived for his 
people sacrificially, who gave this Congregation, 
this Community and this State a forty-six year 
ministry of dedication and devotion as his major 
pulpit, we reverently dedicate this "Bibilog" on this 
occasion of our Centennial Anniversary. 

Zecher Tsaddik Livrocho 



"IN THE BEGINNING . . . (Bereshith) 



These words begin Israel's Human-Testament-Made-Divine, 
"man's account of the Divine rather than the divine account of 
man." 

"In the Beginning," then, shall be "Book One" of our five-fold 
Temple of Israel "Bibilog." "In the Beginning" hereby is offered as 
our story of creation, in things and in ideals, in substance and in 
spirit, in forms of organization and in patterns of communal 
enterprise for Religion and Democracy. 




Jacob Barsimson, first known Jewish settler 
in America, wins concessions for Jews from 
Peter Stuy vesant,governor of New Amsterdam. 



THE CENTURY ■ SAGA OF TEMPLE OF ISRAEL" 

(From earliest known records to May 1976) 
By Dr. Martin M. Weitz, Rabbi, Temple of Israel 

In our search for the earliest Jewish settlement in the Lower Cape Fear 
area, we could not find a date before 1738, when David David is considered 
by many to have been the earliest known Jewish settler on the site of what is 
now Greater Wilmington. We are indebted to our local historian-writer, Bill 
Reaves, author of a series of significant monographs, especially "CIVIL 
WAR - RECONSTRUCTION" (Volume 5, Sunday, March 7, 1973, Wilming- 
ton Morning Star) for the basic data that Varrazano is the first New World 
explorer to land on these shores in 1524, where he encountered friendly 
Indians; that he was followed by de Gyllor in 1526, who lost a ship on 
nearby Frying Pan Shoals; that in 1629 King Charles I of England awarded 
this area first to Sir Robert Heath and then to George, Lord Berkeley, and in 
1663, Charles II granted a charter to eight Lords Proprietors for all Carolina. 
In 1662, a William Hilton explored the river which he named Charles, and 
after that some New Englanders attempted a settlement which failed. 
Another effort saw a village initiated as Charlestown, but it too was deserted 
by 1667. The original charter for Carolina (for both parts) was written by 
John Locke (by 1663) who went out of his way to encourage Jews to settle in 
both sectors, but it did not happen that way historically. 

In addition to the general reasons for the fifty-year gap cited below by Bill 
Reaves for the Lower Cape Fear area, Jewish settlement here was not a 
reality for additional other reasons. One was the imposition of the Anglican 
Church and its will as the official church for the whole Colony. Another was 
the later limitation in North Carolina's first constitution (until 1876), a denial 
of the right to hold office to those who did not accept the truth of Protestant- 
ism and the divine authority of the New Testament. (Evidently it was not as 
strictly enforced in the area of Charleston.) 

Major reasons, explained by Dr. Jacob R. Marcus in Volume II of "EARLY 
AMERICAN JEWRY," include the ever-dangerous presence of pirates, (as 
Blackbeard, killed November 21, 1718 in the area), poorly run government, 
in contrast to the seat of the Colony at Charleston, fewer settlements and 
markets, difficulties in land-holding and lack of diversified attractive 
economic opportunities by comparison with the Charleston zone. By contrast, 
Jews came much earlier to South Carolina, attracted by its promise of 
liberty, religious tolerance, as well as potential for adequate livelihood. 

The long history of Charletston's Jewish community is a record of 
achievement to City, State and Nation and is an integral feature of 
America's total Bicentennial. John Archdale, Quaker governor of Carolina - 
when both Colonies were one - makes first mention of a Jew for all of the 
Carolinas, in a book, "A NEW DESCRIPTION OF THE FERTILE AND 
PLEASANT PROVINCE OF CAROLINA," published in London as early as 
1707. In it he relates that in August 1695, he employed a Jew as interpreter 
in talking with captured Spanish-speaking Indians from near St. Augustine, 
oldest city in North America, founded in 1565. It is probable that this 
interpreter was a Sephardic Jew who came to the New World via England 
and the West Indies, and who may have been the first Jewish settler in all 
the Carolinas then. First known Jewish settler in the Carolinas - still one 
unit - was Simon Valentine, who signed as surety for an administration bond 
in Charlestown in 1696. In 1697, Simon Valentine, Jacob Mendis, Abraham 
Avila, and another possible Archdale interpreter (whose name is not cited) 



were made citizens under a General Assembly Act for making aliens free 
for this part of the "Province" - which meant all of the Carolinas then. 

By 1749, enough Jews were in Charlestown to form a Congregation, 
KAHOL -KADOSH BETH ELOHIM (Holy Congregation - House of God), 
and in 1764 a burial gound was made available by Isaac DaCosta, Reader of 
the Synagogue for "all Jews in North America and the West Indies." It still 
remains one of America's oldest cemeteries, and was probably utilized by 
the earliest settlers of Wilmington, who were also of Iberian or Sephardic 
origin. These relate to the total scope of our historic background for the 
area, because before the Carolinas were separated in 1712 they were a 
single province; Charlestown and Wilmington were complementary to each 
other as the major river-ports of all Carolina. 

For fifty years we have a blackout of "happenings" for the whole Lower 
Cape Fear area due to three factors: (1) The Lords Proprietors closed the 
Carolina land office, probably due to the failures of 1662 and 1667 and 
Culpepper's Rebellion in 1677-78; (2) The Cape Fear Indians were no longer 
as friendly as they were in earlier settlement efforts; (3) a variety of pirates 
frequented the coves, inlets and islands and often based their 
headquarters here. 

By 1725, Cape Fear was open again for colonization by Governor 
Burrington, and shortly afterwards Brunswick was founded as a permanent 
town and lasted until the British destroyed it in 1776 in the American 
Revolution, when they set sail for Charlestown, South Carolina. 

By 1735, a decade later, a John Watson was awarded a land grant in 
"Precinct New Hanover" - in which a second settlement in the area was 
anchored. At first it was called New Carthage, then New Liverpool, then 
Newton and by 1740 was known as Wilmington. It was chartered as a borough 
in 1760 and had John Sampson as its first mayor. It escaped the fire-fate of 
Brunswick some miles below in 1748, when three Spanish galleons burned and 
looted the first permanent settlement. By 1765, the Stamp Act of the British 
angered the people in this area, as it did elsewhere in the Colonies, and, after 
some British warships anchored here, they seized some ships and suppressed 
resistance. The first decisive struggle in North Carolina took place in Moore's 
Creek Bridge, February 27, 1776, for which a major Bicentennial observance 
was made this year. During the Revolution in 1780, Major Craig and British 
troops occupied Wilmington, and a year later General Cornwallis head- 
quartered here before his final and fatal march north and defeat near 
Yorktown, Virginia. 

By 1790, Wilmington was the largest city in North Carolina and one of the 
world's largest ports for tar, turpentine and kindred ship-products. It was a 
major stopover for George Washington in April, 179L during his Southern 
tour. Since our observance of Temple of Israel's Centennial - 1976 -is in the 
framework of America's Bicentennial, we survey the above background of 
general settlements in the Carolinas and Lower Cape Fear areas to make more 
meaningful later specific Jewish settlement and to indicate that there were 
Jewish individuals and families here many decades before any organized 
Jewish settlement was a historic reality. In the JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 
(published in 1905 by Funk and Wagnalls in New York and London), page 335 
of Volume 9, and under "North Carolina," it quotes Isaac Harley in 1826, who 
estimated that there were then 400 Jews throughout the state. It cites - in 
1904 - Wilmington as the largest city in the state and that Aaron Lazarus and 
Aaron Riviera, Iberian Jews, were the first Jewish settlers in Wilmington, 



that Lazarus was born in Charlestown, South Carolina, in 1777 and arrived in 
Wilmington in early manhood where he became interested in early rail- 
roading. Riviera, it mentions, was cashier at the Bank of Cape Fear. 

It refers to a burial society created here by 1852, a congregation, Orthodox, 
under leadership of E. C. Myers as Rabbi, in 1867, and a permanent congre- 
gation under the name of "MISHKAN ISRAEL" (Temple of Israel), organized 
by 1873, with a completed sanctuary dedicated in 1876 when S. Mendelsohn 
was elected its Rabbi and that he was "still discharging his duties" - when 
this first great Jewish Encyclopedia was published in 1904! 

Through the cooperation of Dr. Jacob R. Marcus, of the American Jewish 
Archives in Cincinnati, Ohio, we have tracked down a number of references 
that are directly applicable to Wilmington, as a pre-history to the later Jewish 
community as well as of the Temple of Israel, a hundred years ago. These 
include Nathaniel Jacob's handwritten invitation to Governor Jonathan Worth 
in 1867, some records of diplomatic correspondence of the United States with 
Turkey fromi 1840-1901, in behalf of the welfare of the Jews of Jerusalem and 
signed by residents of various contributors (1849-1877), data on Aaron L. 
Gomez (1822-28) who lived and was born here in 1790s. (More on him later.) 

The records also cite Abraham Isaacs, in an eighteen-page manuscript copy 
of daily prayers in handwriting of Isaacs, grandfather of Sampson M. Isaacs, 
while last will of Abraham Isaacs quotes Charlestown, South Carolina, 1814. 
Aaron Lazarus, in these archives, has a letter to a John Huske and Son in 
Wilmington in 1839- Aaron was known to be one of the earliest Jews to live in 
Wilmington and was one of the first directors of the Wilmington and Weldon 
Railroad. In this handwritten letter he discussed transport and related 
business. Another letter by Lazarus, dated 1823, is to the Anglican Bishop of 
Virginia regarding the conversion of his son, Gershon, to Christianity. Another 
letter is by Nathan Joseph to Jacob Isaacs in behalf of aid for the American 
Society for Amelioration of the Condition of the Jews, in 1820. 

There are many strands in the tapestry of the Lopez-Gomez dynasty of 
families that finger their way into the Cape Fear River and Wilmington. Aaron 
Lopez-Gomez was the son of Moses Mordicia (Mordecai?) Gomez and wife, 
Esther Lopez, and was born in Wilmington in the 1790's, probably our oldest 
Jewish family here. The Gomez family was the wealthiest and most important 
Jewish family in Colonial New York (as noted in PORTRAITS ETCHED IN 
STONE by Daniel de Sola Pool). Aaron was also in Tammany, 1813, in local 
Masonry units. Maria, daughter of Aaron Lopez, the famous Newport, Rhode 
Island, Colonial merchant-shipper, married Jacob Levy and was a sister of the 
mother of Aaron Lopez Gomez. In the marriage records of Gershon Mendes 
Seixas, "Minister" (Rabbi) in New York's famous first synagogue, SHEARITH 
ISRAEL, and first Rabbi to participate in Washington's inaugural ceremonies, 
he wrote a marriage contract in Hebrew and translated it in English for Jacob 
Levey of North Carolina (Wilmington) and Maria Lopez of New Port, Rhode 
Island, married in Stanford, State of Connecticut, by Mr. Moses Gomez (her 
brother-in-law) of this city (New York) in the presence of a full MINYAN. 
Maria died in Wilmington, July 22. 1812 and was buried here, but in March 
14, 1819, her nephew, Aaron L. Gomez, whom we met earlier in these pages, 
petitioned to have her remains brought to New York, probably by ship and 
reinterred there in Shearith Israel's Chatham Square Cemetery. It is 
interesting to learn that for two months an appointed committee for this 
purpose deliberated the matter as to whether burial was to be with her family, 
including an infant child, Sarah Ann, in the Touro Cemetery in Newport or in 
New York, as it was finally, for which Aaron L. Gomez paid $100. A brother of 



Aaron L. Gomez, Lewis, was born in Wilmington in 1795 and died un-married 
at the age of thirty-four on a voyage enroute to St. Augustine, Florida. (This 
data is more fully covered in the Publications of American Jewish Historical 
Society, Volume XXVII, pages 104, 193, 303.) 

Aaron Lazarus in mentioned in the "Jews in Masonry in U.S. Before 1810" 
in Volume XIX of American Jewish Historical Society, in a article by Samuel 
Oppenheim. He is listed as a member of St. Tammany's Lodge #30, for 
Wilmington in 1803. In this article he is portrayed as "one of the earliest of 
Hebrews in Wilmington," as one of the first directors of the Wilmington and 
Weldon Railroad, and his tombstone in Richmond's Hebrew Cemetery (as 
recorded in Ezekiel's and Lichtenstein's "History of the Jews of Richmond" 
page 299), refers to him as of "Wilmington, N. C, Born at Charleston, S. C. 
August 26, 1777, died' at Petersburg, Va., October 2, 1841." On May 10, 
1803, he married Esther, daughter of Gerson Cohen, probably in Charleston, 
who died in Wilmington, November 21, 1816. His second marriage was to 
Rachel, daughter of Jacob Mordecai (who founded the Female Seminary at 
Warrenton in 1809), March 21, 1821, near Richmond. 

This near-first settler deserves a brief geneology: 

By first wife; Gershon (Larendon) born in New York; 
By second wife: Marx Edgeworth; 
Ellen 

Mary Catherine 
Julia Edith 

(and three others - names uncertain) 
Dr. Malcom Stern of the Central Conference of American Rabbis and a foremost 
Jewish geneologist in America, with special books on this theme, has secured 
much of the data on many of the above names for us, and believes that most 
of the Lazarus children were born in Wilmington. 

In addition to the Lopez, Gomez and Lazarus families, we know of a Michael 
Levy, a merchant in Edenton, who was caught right in the midst of 
Cornwallis' maneuvers to capture the Carolinas with the aid of the Loyalists. 
Commissioned to buy coffee and rum for the planter-merchant, Colonel John 
Walker, Levey operated in Edenton and New Bern, both highly vulnerable 
settings. Levey was probably Jewish, or at least of Jewish ancestry. 

Another instance of interest occurred at a trial in 1784, when a member of 
the North Carolina Assembly was accused of theft. One who testified is 
referred to in the minutes as "Mr. Laney, a Jew." 

A Jacob Mordecai settled in Warrenton in 1792. He exhibited a broad 
acquaintance with literature, history and theology and felt keenly about his 
people and his religion, although his mother had originally been a Christian. 
A contemporary of his said that Mordecai was also well versed in Hebrew. He 
probably received his training in Philadelphia, where he was born, the son of 
Moses and Elizabeth Whitlock Mordecai. He was the author of an unpublished 
two-volume work on the superiority of Judaism over Christianity. The 
manuscript is now in the American Jewish Archives in Cincinnati. Mordecai 
also established the Female Academy at Warrenton. 

From David Goldberg, a graduate-student in history at the University of 
North Carolina-Chapel Hill, and who is presently researching sources for a 
proposed "History of Jews in the South," we have number of names, perhaps 
Jewish in origin, that we add to our roster of Jewish settlement in the area of 
Wilmington. 

Earliest among them would be David David, son of Philip Benjamin who 



bought a lot in 1738, according to St. James historical records. David David is 
cited as probably the first Jew in North Carolina in Harry Golden 's short 
.review or Jewry in North Carolina. ' He also appears as a juror on page 
forty-seven in New Hanover Minutes - a service he did ten times during the 
1740's. He was also in the Militia, 1750-52, and during these two years 
acquired 180 acres of land. He may have changed his religious identity for he 
is listed as a "subscriber" (member) with a pew, in a history of the St. James 
Church in Wilmington. His childen were intermarried, for their marriages are 
noted in the records of St. James, as Jane to John Overson in 1775 and 
Abigail to William Lamb in 1777. The death of David David is cited in 1775. 
Joseph Jacobs, an auctioneer and architect, lived in Wilmington from 1775 
to 1830. He is mentioned in a booklet, "JEWS IN MASONRY," as senior 
warden of a lodge in 1807, and upon his death, he is listed in St. James 
records as "not a parishoner." A Captain Lobb (Loeb?) is mentioned in the 
Carolina Gazette, February 26, 1766, as a sea-captain in Wilmington who later 
worked for the Attorney General. (There were other Jewish sea captains 
undoubtedly who put in at the port across the years, but whose names are not 
now on record.) 

A David Ross was listed on December 8, 1769 in the Cape Fear Mercury as 
selling farm products and lumber in the port area. A Jacob Hartman, cited in 
1798, in the Wilmington Weekly is informed that there is a letter for him at 
the local postoffice, and on December 4, 1800, the same weekly informs the 
public that he is looking for an apprentice who ran away from him, while on 
April 10, 1800, he is mentioned as the manager of a local lottery. By 1822, the 
same Jacob Hartman has changed his business (es?) by opening a bakery 
seen in the Cape Fear Recorder. But he seems to have married a Christian by 
181 1 and joined St. James (as recorded for 1811-1814). 

Another name of Jewish interest is that of Jacob Suares and in the 
Wilmington Gazette for October 10; 1799, indicates that it has a letter for him 
and on April 4 and 19, same year, an advertisement in the Gazette describes 
him as a blacksmith, silversmith, whitesmith and gunsmith. Willon Jacobs 
appears on June 3 and 10, 1800, in the same Gazette that a letter awaits him a 
the post-office and a Mrs. Abram Golden in April, 1811 is so informed in the 
same paper. Moses Gomez' name is cited on page 13 in New Hanover County 
Records for June 1840, regarding "complaints against him as master 
overseer" by a servant of his and that he is ordered to treat him better 
henceforth! 

The 1790 census, first in the newly formed United States, refered to Eleazar 
Levi as head of a family for Wilmington, while the records of St. James 
includes as "subscribers" such names as Abraham Golden, Jacob Levi and 
Joseph Jacobs in 1815 - all Christians by now. The St. James Historical 
Records informs us that forty-six pounds of candles were purchased from an 
Abraham Judah and in 1830 it refers to the death of Dr. Judah!? 

Aaron Riviera, mentioned earlier as one of the first Jewish settlers in 
Wilmington, is in the St. Ja?nes Records as having married a Marina Hunter 
in 1830 and died in 1838. This same Aaron is a grandson of both Aaron Lopez 
and Jacob Rodriques Riviera of Newport, Rhode Island, who helped introduce 
spermaceti candles to this country, according to Dr. Malcolm Stern. 
The Bible record of Aaron Lazarus, the other of our pioneer Jewish settlers 
here - now in Raleigh, North Carolina State Archives - reveals that Aaron's 
children were born here between 1805 and 1808, and that he wandered across 
the state, as far as Smithfield and Hillsborough but that he came to Wilmington 
for the birth of his son, Marx, in 1822. (His oldest son Gershon is the one who 
changed his name to Larendon, noted above.) Aaron Lazarus was in 
Wilmington at least to 1840, when another son was also named Aaron. 



We are indebted to Dr. Malcolm Stern for other intriguing information - 
that many of the early Jewish settlers in Wilmington were closely identified 
with Masonry. These are more fully cited in Samuel Oppenheimer's work on 
"THE JEWS AND MASONRY IN THE UNITED STATES BEFORE 1810," 
with special reference on page seventy-five to North Carolina and 
Wilmington. Parallel sources include the historic documents and records in 
the offices of the Masonic Temple on Front Street in Wilmington, dates of 
which go back to 1789, a °d earlier, according to Louis Shrier, custodian for 
these records and life-long member of Temple of Israel. 

We learn that Abraham Isaacs was a member of St. Tammany Lodge #30 
here in Wilmington, as early as 1798; that Aaron Lazarus was in the same 
lodge in 1803; that M. Levy is cited for this very lodge also in 1803 (identified 
also as Judah Mears Levy, who was born iri Newport, Rhode Island, June 18, 
1778 and who died in the United States Navy at Havana, Cuba, in October 
1813). Judah M. Levy was married in Wilmington (wife's name unknown) and 
left two children,, Julia and George, according to Dr. Malcolm Stern, in his 
impressive and original "AMERICANS OF JEWISH DESCENT," page 116. It 
is interesting to learn of this continuous interest in Masonry even to the laying 
of the cornerstone in May 1875, and the dedication of the completed Temple 
of Israel on May 12, 1876, when local officers of Masonic orders participated 
fully in all the observances. 

Many of us often wondered what was in the background of the sign on 
Third Street in reference to the home of Judah P. Benjamin, for he too was a 
singular personality in the lifeline of America that cast a giant shadow in 
Washington and Richmond, across the heartland of America in the 
mid-century decades of the last century. He too belongs to our total roster for 
Wilmington, in the lineage of the others who came from different spaces and 
places. Judah was born on the island of Nevis, August 6, 1811 and moved to 
Croix in 1808 - in the then British West Indies - and to Wilmington in 1818. 
After a sojourn here until 1823, the family moved to Charleston, South 
Carolina. His father, Philip, was quite an eccentric and in the records of the 
Reformed Society of Israelites in Charleston, South Carolina, it clearly states 
that he was expelled! Available records describe the father as a "shadowy" 
character and as a source of embarrassment. Not so with young Judah - for 
when the family settled in New Orleans, Judah there became a national name 
and a political personality of significance. 

While in Wilmington (1818-1823), approximately for a similar span of years 
as did Woodrow T. Wilson some fifty years later, when his father was pastor 
here for the First Presbyterian Church on Third Street, the Benjamin family 
lived with a Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Levy on Third and Ann Streets. Jacob Levy 
was a great-uncle to Judah P. Benjamin and a great-grandfather to Lewis 
Levy of Fayetteville, N. C, of Robert W. Tyler, now at Burlington, 
Massachusetts. Mr. Levy was recognized as a respected merchant and Mrs. 
Levy was a great-aunt to young Judah. His father never became a naturalized 
citizen, a circumstance which later aided Judah when he decided to flee to 
England, after the collapse of the Confederacy and where he renewed a status 
as a British subject. While in the Wilmington area, he was educated in 
Fayetteville, followed by two years (1825-7) in Yale University as one of its 
most brilliant students in its history. After the family moved to New Orleans, 
when Judah was seventeen, he pursued the study of law in a legal office, 
common practice even to the present century. In 1832, at the age of 
twenty-one, he was admitted to the bar in Louisiana. It was not long until he 
became a famous lawyer, an advocate of States rights, an owner of slaves, and 



by 1852, a senator for his state in Washington, with an easy re-election six 
years later. He was even offered an Associate Justiceship of the Supreme 
Court by President Franklin Pierce, which he graciously refused. He tendered 
his resignation to the United States Senate when his state voted to join the 
Confederacy, and served with great distinction in the Cabinet of Jefferson 
Davis, as Attorney General, Secretary of War (even taking blame on himself 
to shield Davis when it was impossible to secure adequate war supplies) and 
Secretary of State. He probably bore more cabinet portfolios than any man in 
American history with the single exception of Elliott Richardson! In the failure 
of the Confederacy, he and Jefferson Davis fled Richmond together, but since 
he did not wish to renew his oath to the United States, he went on to England 
where he was welcomed as a British subject and to a great new life in London. 
He began an impressive third career in London, was admitted to the bar in 
1866. made a Queen's Counsel to reigning Victoria in 1872 and became 
famous as an author of "SALES" and other legal works and as a great 
English jurist. He also earned as much as $100,000 a year at his professional 
zenith in London. Ater sixteen years in law, he retired when Bench and Bar 
gave him a banquet. He died in Paris in 1884, at the age of seventy-three. 
Though he married a Catholic girl in New Orleans when twenty-two, he 
considered himseld a Jew and defended his people at all times. Throughout 
his career he was at his desk a 8:00 a.m. daily and would not leave it until 
1:00 or 2:00 a.m. to complete his labors, and through it all he preserved his 
courtesy, calm and capacity - with good cheer. 

Rabbi Isaac M. Wise once met him in Washington and was dismayed that 
he quoted only Shakespeare while Daniel Webster quoted the Bible most 
expertly, in a discussion on religion in the home of Daniel Webster. Then too in 
debates with Webster and others, he was referred to as "an Israelite with an 
Egyptian conscience." He was also called the "brains of the Confederacy." 
As Hyam Salomon in the preceding century in civil life served the American 
Revolution, so too Judah P. Benjamin was the outstanding Jew in public 
service in the Civil War period. Though he made and lost several fortunes (as 
when the Mississippi River flooded his sugar plantations), we remember him 
best as lawyer, author, statesman, United States Senator, Secretary in three 
major cabinet posts in the Confederacy and later prime legal expert in Great 
Britain. We also recall that Wilmington was his home for five years - 1818 to 
1823. 

A parallel but different story from Judah P. Benjamin centered about Jacob 

Henry, son of Joel and Amelia Henry, who was elected to the Legislature of 

North Carolina in 1808, to represent Carteret County. This experience became 

a case in state history and a basic milestone for legislative freedom. In 1809 

Representative Mills of Rockingham County, demanded that Henry be 

expelled from the Assembly on the grounds that he had not taken his oath of 

office on the New Testament and the legislative body was compelled to try 

him on the charges. Finally, Judge William Gaston of Cumberland, a 

Catholic, ruled that the legislature was above all civil offices, and that hence 

the religious test for office need not apply to the General Assembly. Then 

Henry arose to speak. Some of the things he said apply now as they did then: 

"who among us (he asked) feels himself so exalted above his 

fellows as to have a right to dictate to them their mode of belief? 

Shall this free country set an example of persecution which even the 

returning reason of enslaved Europe would not submit to? Will you 

bind the conscience in chains and fasten conviction upon the mind in 



10 



spite of the conclusions of reason?... Are you prepared to plunge at 
once from the sublime heights of moral legislation into the dark and 
gloomy caverns of superstitious ignorance? Will you drive from your 
shores and from the shelter of your constitutions all who do not lay 
their oblations on the same altar, observe the same ritual, and 
subscribe to the same dogmas? If so, which among the various sects 
into which we are divided shall be the favored one?" 
Of his own faith, Henry said: 

"The religion I profess inculcates every duty which man owes to 
his fellow men; it enjoins upon its votaries the practice of every 
virtue and the detestation of everv vice: it teaches them to hope tor 
the favor of heaven exactly in proportion as their lives are directed 
by just, honorable, and beneficent maxims. This, gentlemen, is my 
creed; it was impressed on my infant mind, it has been the director 
of my youth, the monitor of my manhood, and will, I trust be the 
consolation of my old age ..." 

"I do not seek to make converts to my faith, whatever it may be 
esteemed in the eyes of my officious friend, nor do I exclude any 
man from my esteem or friendship because he and P differ in that 
respect. The same charity, therefore is not unreasonable to expect, 
will be extended to myself because in all things that relate to the 
State and to the duties of civil life, I am bound by the same 
obligations with my fellow-citizens, nor does any man subscribe more 
sincerely than myself to the maxim: Whatever ye would that men 
should do unto you, do ye so even unto them, for such is the Law of 
the Prophets." 
The charge of Representative Mills was dismissed. Jacob Henry was 
permitted to hold his office, and he completed his term, serving North 
Carolina ably. It was not until 1876, however, that a North Carolina 
constitutional assembly fully enfranchised the Jews - the very year when the 
earliest Jewish congregation in Wilmington and in North Carolina was in 
process of formation. 

From the foregoing historic perspective, we have attempted to do the 
following: 

1 . To go as far back as available in the era of exploration in the Carolinas and 
especially in the Lower Cape Fear area and relate it to permanent settlement 
followed in Wilmington; 

2. To check back as far as possible in the saga of Jewish settlement in the 
area with major focus on Wilmington; 

3. To indicate that some Jewish settlers were here as early as 1738, and 
that most of them were Sephardic in life-pattern, Iberian in origin and that 
they were inter-related with the foremost Jewish families in New York, 
Newport, especially Charlestown and other nearby colonial centers - and that 
there were many births and some burials in Wilmington - for a limited time; 

4. To reveal the reality that they flourished in commerce and port-related 
enterprise in general, and that they preserved a limited Jewish experience - via 
home observances and services, at least for major festivals (Orthodox) and 
that many of them travelled by sea for significant events as marriages to other 
cities where they had family and where they shared business ventures; 

5. To specify that though all came as Jewish settlers, many of them were 
lost to Jewry through conversion and intermarriage, especially to the oldest 
Protestant congregation here, before and after 1800, especially because of 



11 



absence of available Jewish brides, and that many of their progeny may still 
be in the vicinity under different names; 

6. To chart a prelude with the appearance of Iberian Jews and before the 
arrival of German Jewish settlers after the failure of revolutions in Germany 
about 1848 and the emergence after hiatus in time - of a Jewish cemetery in 
1855 and a Jewish congregation, our own, in 1867. 

Basic sources for the development of the Temple of Israel since its 
inception may be found in: 

"THE OCCIDENT" published in Philadelphia by Rabbi Isaac Leeser; 
"THE AMERICAN ISRAELITE" in Cincinnati by Dr. Isaac M. Wise; 
"THE DAILY POST" and "EVENING STAR" in Wilmington, North 
Carolina; 

"CHRONICLES OF THE CAPE FEAR RIVER" in Raleigh by James Sprunt 
(1916); 

"AMERICAN JEWISH ARCHIVES IN CINCINNATI" by Dr. Jacob R. 
Marcus. 

It may be best to quote some of the original writings, to retain their flavor 
and savor a century ago, as well as to provide authenticity and continuity for 
this document. 

As the late Dr. Karl Rosenthal intimates in his introduction in 1951 - when 
Temple of Israel observed its Seventy-Fifth Anniversary, "Our rabbinical 
sages of old use to say, 'First comes the cemetery, then comes the city.' 

The Hebrew Cemetery, established March 6, 1855 (5615), preceded the 
congregation by twenty years, much as the* same way as it happened in many 
cities with Jewish residents. In 1852, a CHEVRA KADISHA (a Purification 
Society) was organized for proper burial rites. Isaac Leeser reported in 1855 in 
the column for his "OCCIDENT" (Volume XIII): 
Wilmington, North Carolina. - 

On the 6th of March the Israelites of this principal city of North 
Carolina dedicated a piece of ground in the Oak Dale Ceme- 
tery for a burying-place of their own. The exercises were 
conducted by Mr. Leeser, who stopped during the day on his journey 
through there; he also delivered an address to the audience, which 
consisted of about twenty Israelites and at least two hundred of other 
persuasions. Since our return we have heard that sufficient funds had 
been raised to place a proper railing around the lot in question, 
which is, we think, about sixty-five feet square, and is eligibly 
situated. 
Isaac Leeser himself was present for a dedicatory address at the Oakdale 
section, as reported in 1856: 

"The Israelites of Wilmington had till lately no proper burying place of their 
own; but had to carry their dead considerable distances to Charleston, or 
Norfolk and Richmond, for interment. While there were but few familes 
scattered over the State, they had to submit to this both troublesome and 
expensive method of disposing of the remains of their deceased friends. But 
when they had gradually increased in Wilmington sufficiently to form a 
charitable society, their first care was to accumulate funds to buy a piece of 
ground dedicated to receive the mortal remains of their friends and kindred. It 
now happened that the citizens of Wilmington lately followed the example of 
other towns, by laying out a public cemetery in a tract of land called Oak Dale; 
the Israelites resolved to lay a square of ground and have it fenced in by a 
proper railing, for their own purposes. As Mr. Leeser was expected to pass 
through on Tuesday, the 6th of March, he had offered them his services to 



12 



conduct the religious exercises suitable to the opening of the ground; he was 
received by a committee consisting of Messrs. D. Teller, David Kahnwiler, 
and A. Lyons, at the railroad station, early in the morning of the above day, 
and in the afternoon a number of Israelites, amounting to about twenty males 
and two ladies, all in fact who were able to attend, went out to the cemetery, 
where there were many Christians who had been invited by notices posted at 
sundry places, and who testified by their close attention and decorous 
demeanor that they fully sympathized with their Jewish fellow-citizens in the 
act of dedication. The service consisted simply of reading Psalms XCI and XVI 
in Hebrew, the last being afterwards given in the English; the blessing, 
'Thou art mighty, O Lord, Forever,' was then recited." 

There was a cemetery but not as yet a congregation. It is likely that laymen 
shared an Orthodox service in homes for a number of years. We hear again 
from the Rabbi in Philadelphia, Isaac Leeser, via his "OCCIDENT" for March 
8, 1860 (Volume XVII, No. 50): 
"Wilmington, NC - 

We have spoken with several gentlemen residents of this, the 

largest place in North Carolina, and they informed us that they had 

worship during the fall holy days, and that everything went off very 

satisfactorily. We have been promised some particulars of matters 

there; but they have not yet reached us. A collection was also taken 

up for the Morocco refugees which amounted, if we understood 

aright, to twenty-eight dollars. Perhaps by the time our next number 

appears, we may have been put in possession of other points relating 

to this growing community; and it would afford us sincere pleasure 

could we announce to our readers that they had fully organized, and 

secured the services of a pious minister. It is time they were busy in 

the good work, and we trust that they will not neglect it much 

longer." 

Though services were assuredly conducted for the Holy Days in special 

settings in an Orthodox pattern, since Reform was not fully developed for 

some years, and a MINYAN (quorum) would meet in individual homes as 

necessary, it was not until 1867 that a congregation was established. This 

became the first Jewish Congregation in the state, in Wilmington, then the 

leading city in the state. It must be remembered that Isaac Leeser was 

interested in an Orthodox perspective, and that he campaigned far and wide 

through his periodical "OCCIDENT" and by his travels across the Eastern 

half of the country, in creating many Orthodox Congregations, of which the 

one in Wilmington was exemplary. He fought unceasingly against Dr. Isaac 

Mayer Wise in Cincinnati, Ohio and Rabbi David Einhorn in Baltimore, 

Maryland, and their organized efforts in behalf of Reform Judaism. Leeser 

took great pride in what he considered his achievements in Wilmington - a 

cemetery in 1855, and an Orthodox Congregation in a temporary home in 

1867, and the prospects of a permanent edifice by 1875-6. As early as 1867, he 

castigated against Reform as "strange fire on the altar," and in the pages of 

the "OCCIDENT," Volume XXV, 1867, published this lengthy report on his 

creation in Wilmington: 

"Wilmington, NC - 

We lately announced that a congregation had been formed in the 
principal business town of North Carolina, and we have now the 
satisfaction to state that we were honored, just before the 
commencement of the holy days, with a card, admitting us to the 
dedication of the synagogue, on the 29th of September, the eve of 



13 



Rosh-hashanah. We have since received a letter form the Rev. E. M. 
Myers, brother of the Charleston minister, who has been elected 
Hazan (Cantor) of the new Body. HE STATES THAT EVERYTHING 
HAS BEEN ORGANIZED ON ORTHODOX PRINCIPLES, AND 
THAT THESE WILL BE PRESERVED IN ALL PUBLIC AF- 
FAIRS. Of course the minister cannot be responsible for the 
conduct of individuals; but we trust that they will conform to the 
religion in honor of which they have at length established a house of 
worship which was so long needed, and which in view of the large 
number of Israelites in the place, was for many years past within 
their means. From a slip of the Daily Post we learn that, up to the 
date of dedication, $1,934 had been subscribed for the synagogue by 
the Jewish inhabitants of Wilmington. There are twenty-three parties 
who gave $50 and upwards, who are regarded as members, and thirty- 
three others, and one widow lady, who are contributors; no doubt 
many of these will be full members before long. There is, from the 
numerical force there exhibited, strength enough in this body to be 
self-sustaining and to promote all the objects of their association; in 
fact, they start with a larger contributing list than many now 
flourishing communities in the larger cities. Only let them be of good 
courage and faithful, and they cannot fail." 
In these and related reports, he cites these names as first officers of this 

newly established congregation: Nathaniel Jacobi as President, and I. D. 

Ryttenberg as Treasurer and indicates for other vacant offices folks are to 

"apply to them direct." Several reports refer appreciatively to the Ladies' 

Concordia Society, which preceded the Congregation by some years and which 

helped it become a reality. 

In an account in the Wilmington Evening Star for September 30, 1867, the 

dedication exercises for the newly-formed congregation are described in some 

del ail: 

"By a courteous invitation we were present to witness the inaugual 
ceremonies on the occasion of dedicating to the the service and 
worship to the Lord God of Israel the new synagogue. This being the 
first instance of the kind, either in this city or state, the occasion was 
one of much interest, especially with our Jewish fellow-citizens. 
Accordingly, besides the congregation proper, there were assembled 
a considerable number of our most influential citizens - several of 
them accompanied by their ladies. 

The building, in the rear of the old Presbyterian church lot, on 
Front Street, had been selected for remodling, which has been done 
in accordance with the rules and usages prescribed. A full 
programme of the proceedings was put into our hands, and at the 
hour named the ceremonies began. These were conducted with some 
solemnity. The chanting of the appropriate Psalms and Scriptures, in 
the language of Moses, Isaiah and David, the language in which our 
Bible was written, was admirably intoned by the Pastor... Much to 
our surprise and gratification, the Pastor, the Rev. Mr. Myers, made 
an execellent address in English, having reference to the 
circumstances of his mission and prospective residence amidst the 
Jewish community of Wilmington... The Reverend gentleman 
concluded with a short exhortation from a text taken from 
Deuteronomy... To some of those who yesterday met with the 



! 1 



assembled of God's ancient people, must have occurred the 
remembrance of the last words of Moses: Happy art thou, O Israel; 
who is like unto thee, people, saved by the Lord, the shield of thy 
help and who is the sword of thy excellency." 

The following is a list of the officers of the synagogue: Rev. E. M. Myers, 
Minister, Mr. Nathaniel Jacobi, President; Mr. G. Rosenthal, Vice-President; 
Mr. I. D. Ryttenberg, Treasurer; Messrs. H. Marcus and A. Wronski, 
Trustees; Mr. M. Ryttenberg, Hon. Secretary. 

It will be noted that the first official Jewish congregation was motivated 
largely by Rabbi Isaac Leeser by his many visits here, that it was Orthodox in 
nature, that the "Reverend" Myers was a Chason (Cantor) or reader, rather 
than a Rabbi, who probably came from Charleston, South Carolina, where his 
brother was Rabbi and -that there were continuous links in the lifeline between 
Charleston and Wilmington since earliest settlement days; that the women's 
group preceded the Congregation, that others already applied for the 
vacancies (?) and that the new Congregation on Front Street looked forward in 
growth and backward in tradition at the same time. 

Leeser hoped that this young new congregation would help his campaign for 
an American Orthodoxy (for there was no Conservatism as yet) throughout the 
Carolinas against the invading influence of emergent Reform, especially from 
Cincinnati, Ohio, and the Founding Father of American Reform, Isaac Mayer 
Wise. 

The early congregation utilized an old refurnished Presbyterian Chapel on 
Marcus Alley, between Dock and Orange Streets. Difficulties arose with 
reactions to Orthodox Services, to Mr. Myers, and even to some of the policies 
initiated by the officers. Attendance diminished, membership declined, and 
revenues - and the great hopes of 1867 ceased to be. In these dire 
circumstances, they gave up the "Chapel" and Nathaniel Jacobi came to the 
rescue with informal services and increased attendance at the home of Mr. 
and Mrs. Nathaniel Jacobi. 

It was not long until the impact of Isaac Mayer Wise was felt fully and 
freely here in Wilmington as it was all over the country. By 1873, he 
established a Union of American Hebrew Congregations (in which he hoped 
to enlisit ALL congregations, Orthodox as well as Reform) and by 1875, he 
created the Hebrew Union College in the basements of the Mound Street and 
Plum Street Temples - both in Cincinnati. This is now the oldest and largest 
Jewish Seminary in the world - with compuses in Cincinnati, New York City, 
Los Angeles and Jerusalem. 

A reference here might be of interest regarding the emergence of what 
came to be known as Conservative Judaism: When Reform Judaism observed 
its Fifth Birthday (1878) at a leading hotel in Cincinnati, Ohio, it was to be a 
salute to Isaac Mayer Wise and his gifted leadership of the Reform Movement 
in America. This event was a call to ALL congregations to join together under 
his banner, regardless of divergent views. It was even arranged that a Jewish 
caterer take care of details, to avoid trespassing on sensibilities. 
Unfortunately, neither the caterer nor the dinner were double-checked and 
the dinner, in a sense, was a disaster for Reform for it helped incubate the 
Conservative Movement! We might say, facetiously, that the Conservative 
Movement was "founded" on a "shrimp and crab cocktail!" Here is the 
original menu which did so much "damage" to early Reform: 



15 



MENU 

Amontillado Little Neck Clams (half shell) 

Potages 
Consomme Royal 

Sauternes Poissons 

Fillet de Boef, aux Champignons 
Soft-shell Crabs 
a l'Amerique, Pommes Duchesse 
Salade of Shrimps 

St. Julien Entree 

Sweet Breads a la Monglas 
Petits Pois a la Francase 

Diedescheimer Relevee 

Poulets a la Viennoise Asperges Sauce 
Vinaigrette Pommes Pate 

Roman Punch Grenouiles a la Creme and Cauliflower 

Roti 

Vol au Vents de Pigions a la Tyrolienne 

Salade de Laitue 

G. H. Mumm Extra Dry Hors D'Oevers 

Bouchies de Volaille a la Regeurs 

Olives Caviv, Sardeiles de Hollands 

Brissotins au Supreme Tomatoe 

Mayonaise 

Sucres 
IceCream - Assorted & Ornamented Cakes 
Entrements 
Martell Cognac Fromages Varies 

Fruits Varies 
Cafe Noir 



The people in Wilmington probaly never heard about or heeded these 
"disturbing" details about the "party" in 1878 in Cincinnati. They assuredly 
heard about Isaac Mayer Wise and his great and appealing reforms in his new 
magnificent Plum Street Temple built in 1863, as men and women sharing 
the family pews together, uncovered heads for men, mixed choirs, LATE 
Friday evening services (about 8:00 p.m.), the use of organ music, "MINHAG 
AMERICA" (Reform Prayer Book), modern interpretation of the Bible and 
Talmud, and many other changes in the ancient tradition. They certainly knew 
by now of the Hebrew Union College as well as the Union of American 
Hebrew Congregations - his prime institutions by then - and read his 
colorful and eventful weeklies, The American Israelite and Deborah (for 
women). Then, too, he wrote over a dozen books on religion, eight novels, and 
travelled the land as "an Ambassador of Good-Will in the Court of Public 
Opinion." 

A new congregation was attempted some years later under the guidance of 
Dr. Isaac Mayer Wise and based on his "MINHAG AMERICA" (American 
Prayerbook). We read the pages of the American Israelite for November 8, 
1872 (Volume XIX, Number 19) instead of the "OCCIDENT" for further news 



16 



about Wilmington and its new orientation for local Jewry. Dr. Wise himself 
probally wrote this item for November 1872: 

"There is no Hebrew congregation in the State of North 
Carolina, and none outside of Charleston, in South Carolina. It is, 
therefore, of particular interest to learn that our co-religionists of 
Wilmington, N. C. have resolved to establish a "MINHAG 
AMERICA" congregation in that city, and to erect a synagogue. 
The meeting held Sunday 27th ult., was called to order by Mr. Weil, 
who acted as chairman protem when a permanent organization was 
effected, and Mr. Bear was called to the chair. Some forty men responded 
to the call, resolved upon the construction of a congregation, the 
erection of a synagogue, the adoption of the Minhag America, and 
subscribed $3,000 on the spot, to carry out all these points. We wish 
them success and God's blessing. ' ' 
This event took place in the home of Mr. A. Weill and the first recorded 
minutes of the new congregation called MISHKAN ISRAEL, "Temple of 
Israel," are dated December 8, 1872. The first election was conducted with 
the following officers: President - Solomon Bear; Vice - President - A. Weill; 
Treasurer - Nathaniel Jacobi; Secretary - J. L. Macks; Directors - F. Rhein- 
stein, S. Levy, M. M. Katz, H. Greenewald, H. Marcus. 

The first committees were established and they comprised the following: 
Finance: A. Weill, H. Brunhild, Sol. Bear; 
Building: A. Weill, F. Rheinstein, William Goodman, M. M. Katz, S. H. 

Fishblate, D. Kanweiler and Sol. Bear; 

Soliciting Donations: F. Rhenstein, A. Weill, S. H. Fishblate, Sol. Bear, 

M. M. Katz, Sol Levy, Nathaniel Jacobi, William 

Goodman, P. Newman, H. Brunhild, H. Marcus, S. 

Hanstein. 

This also was the first attempt for a Reform Congregation to be housed in a 

new Temple. The group turned again to Philadelphia to find a mentor of 

Reform spirit and stature, Dr. Marcus Jastrow, Rabbi of Rodeph Sholom 

Congregation, outstanding Rabbi and civic spokesman. He was invited to visit 

in Wilmington to conduct a wedding and help form a permanent congregation. 

Since he initiated a number of reforms into what had been an old Orthodox 

Congregation in Philadelphia, they thought he indeed might help the 

Wilmington group in its search for a "gradual modification of the old 

Orthodox ritual." We find him here on November 21, 1872, where he 

addressed "a general meeting of Israelites in the City Court Room and under 

the chairmanship of Mr. Solomon Bear, an organization was effected and 

committees were named to solicit members and subscriptions and to locate a 

suitable location for a synagogue, ' ' according to Author Sprunt in Chronicles of 

the Cape Fear River. 

From the earliest ledgers of the Congregation we have ample proof that 
enough Jewish families participated generously to guarantee in time the 
creation of a suitable edifice. This investment in the future was sanctioned by 
a growing spirit among all groups in the Port City and Christians too shared in 
offerings for the new Congregation, much in the same spirit as did Benjamin 
Franklin a century earlier when he aided the fledgling Jewish congregation 
MIKVE ISRAEL, in Philadelphia. In a few weeks a sum of $2,100 was raised 
by a total of fifty-seven donors. 

After four years, a lot was purchased at Fourth and Market Streets and a 
temple was planned for $20,000. The lot, say the records, "is just across from 
St. James Cemetery which shelters the ashes of the builders of Wilmington," 



17 



according to Sprunt. This lot was secured from Mrs. Mary Jane Langdon, 
whose great-granddaughters lived next door to the temple as late as 1951. On 
May 20, 1875, ground was broken, on the very centennial of the Mecklenburg 
Declaration of Independence, and the cornerstone was set, with participation 
of local Masonry, and Dr. Marcus Jastrow was invited back again for this 
historic experience to present the major address. According to Sprunt's 
CHRONICLES, the Hon. Alfred Moore Waddell represented the city as Mayor 
and the Masonic Order which shared in the corner-stone ceremonies. A 
variety of churches also took part and this was followed by a banquet in the 
City Hall for which approximately 300 were present. From AMERICAN 
JEWISH ARCHIVES we received a transcript of the exact proceedings for the 
corner-stone ceremonies. 

Transcript of Proceedings in connection with the Laying of the Corner Stone 
of The Temple of Israel, Wilmington, N. C, July 15, 1875, as copied from the 
Minute Book of St. John's Lodge, A.F. & A.M.: 

THE GRAND LODGE OF NORTH CAROLINA convened in St. 
John's Hall, Wilmington, N. C, Thursday, July 15, 1875, A. L. 5875, 
at 4 p.m., and was opened in ample form by H. H. Munson, Acting 
Grand Master. 

A dispensation from Most Worthy Grand Master George W. Blunt, 
appointing Brother H. H. Munson to act in his stead on the occasion 
was read. 

The object of the meeting was explained to be the laying of the 
Corner Stone of the Temple of Israel, and the following Grand 
Officers were appointed: 



R. W. 


S. S. Everitt 


as Deputy G. M. 


R. W. 


A. Wronski 


asS. G. W. 


R. W. 


T. G. Robinson 


as J. G. W. 


R. W. 


W. N. Holt 


as G. Treas. 


R. W. 


J. C. Munds 


as Secy. 


Brother 


W. A. Williams 


asS. G. D. 


Brother 


J. W. Wolvin 


asj. G. D. 


Brother 


W. M. Poisson 


as G. Chaplain 


Brother 


J . Price 


as G. Marshall 


Brother 


A. Carpenter 


as G. Steward 


Brother 


W. R. Kenan 


as G. Steward 


Brother 


B. G. Bates 


as G. Tyler 



The procession was then formed (with the Jewish Congregation), 
and proceeded to the side of the building. 

The Grand Master, with the prescribed ceremonies of the order, 
assisted by his Associate Grand Officers laid the Corner Stone, after 
which an Oration was pronounced by Brother Alfred W. Waddell of 
St. John's Lodge, Number One. 

The benediction was then pronounced by the Acting Grand Chaplain. 
The procession re-formed and proceeded to the City Hall and partook 
of a collation, spread by the Congregation of the Temple of Israel, 
after which the procession was again formed and returned to St. 
John's Hall. 

The minutes have been read and approved, the Grand Lodge was 
closed in ample form. 

James C. Munds, 
Acting Grand Secretary 



18 



For this event Nathaniel Jacobi sent to Governor Jonathan Worth in 
Raleigh inviting his presence for the corner-stone ceremony. 

Rabbi Samuel Mendelsohn came here on February 29, 1876, largley under 
the guidance of Dr. Jastrow, whose student he was for many years and whose 
niece he married. He was invited to Wilmington from Norfolk, Virginia, 
where he served Temple Beth El. He guided this congregation for 
approximately forty-six years, from 1876 to 1921, from its infancy through its 
full maturity. He presided over the service of dedication on May 12, 1876, a 
significant event in the history of Wilmington, as attested by the full-page 
tribute accorded it by the entire community. This singular "happening" was 
described most colorfully in this edition: 

"On entering, the eye is dazzled with the colors of blended light 
that stream in through the richly stained glass windows. The 
carpet is brilliant with flowers of the warmest hues, scattered in 
garlands and bouquets on the emerald surface. The altar is 
covered with imperial purple velvet, and on each side of it stand 
the seven typical lights supported by two bronze columns, in front 
of which are two marble basins filled with flowers upheld by 
marble crayatides. Vases of flowers are stationed in graceful pro- 
fusion, and crowns of roses and evergreens hang from the chan- 
deliers around the room. The Ark is of white marble and grey 
stone, excepting the two black tables of stone which are of black 
marble, bearing on their surface the Ten Commandments traced in 
Hebrew with glittering gilt letters. The 'santum sanctorum,' 
which was exposed to view in one part of the interesting and 
impressive ceremonial, seems to be draped with the same rich 
Tyrian dye as the altar, combined with folds of lace. In the Holy of 
Holies were deposited the 'Scrolls of the Law' inclosed in silken 
coverings, on which were inscribed two Hebrew characters, 
abbreviations for 'The Crown of the Law. 
It is of interest to cite that the stained-glass windows were free from Bible or 
other characters due to the mistaken idea then that such were not permitted in 
a Synagogue, for even Orthodox Congregations did and do permit figures 
even in bar-relief, for such are not considered as "graven images" or idolatry. 
A most notable tribute to the new temple came from Dr. Wise's AMERICAN 
ISRAELITE (New Series, Volume IV, No. 21): "for simple elegance this 
temple is unsurpassed in the United States." 

The MORNING STAR in Wilmington had this to say about Dr. Mendelsohn's 
address of dedication: "The sermon was first addressed on Jewish liberty as 
slowly won from the ages, and then an exhortation to his own people to be 
true to their history, tradition and faith... A sketch of the condition of his race 
in North Carolina followed with appropriate reference to the devotion of the 
Jews to the laws of the land... He spoke feelingly of the Christians who had 
assisted his people in building their temple. The temple was not the walls, 
not the pomp of ceremonia, but it was the spirit of the worshipers... The 
worship must make the people better. This was a place to pray not only for 
the welfare of the Jews, but for that of Christian friends, a place to teach the 
broadest humanitarianism, the truest charity." 

Throughout his ministry, Dr. Mendelsohn conducted Sabbath and Festival 
services, life-cycle events from birth through death, and related activities in 
congregation and community, with sincerity, dignity and ability. A Sabbath 
School flourished and life in the Congregation was effective and affirmative. 



19 



During its first half-century, it had a succession of but three presidents, 
adequate testimony to its stability. In instances of crises, both leaders and 
Rabbi cooperated creatively to maintain the Temple as a force for Jewish 
survival and revival, as a House of Prayer, a House of Study and a House of 
Assembly, the three classic functions of a congregation. 

A milestone was reached on June 9, 1878, when Temple of Israel joined the 
Union of American Hebrew Congregation with which it has been affiliated 
since. It was awarded a Centennial Certificate of Membership at the 1975 
convention in Dallas, Texas, when it was received for us by Alan 
Oppenheimer', son of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Oppenheimer. Another milestone, 
under Dr. Mendelsohn, was achieved when the "Union Prayer Book" 
published by the Central Conference of American Rabbis, replaced the earlier 
Jastrow Prayer Book. This too gave way in 1975 to the "newly revised" 
editions of 1945 for both Sabbath and Holy Days. 

A Sisterhood pre-dated the Congregation by several years and was called the 
"Ladies Concordia Society." Its purpose was to "promote the cause of 
Judaism and to aid by its funds the maintenance of the temple of worship in our 
midst." It has given constant support to all major needs of the congregation 
and currently maintains the Religious School, sponsors festival dinners and 
events, as Chanuko, Purim and Passover, in cooperation with the Rabbi and 
faculty and congregation, helps with receptions and hospitality and special 
temple needs. A feature is the Biblical Gardens since its inception, adopted 
as a national project and so described by the National Federation of Temple 
Sisterhoods. Almost seventy-five years ago, from funds it raised, Concordia 
secured a parsonage or "rabbinage," gave an organ to the temple, provided 
curtains for the Ark, covers for the pulpit, mantles for the Torahs, flowers for 
the Altar, and presented two memorial lamps when Dr. Mendelsohn died. It 
also aided with new sidewalks, repaired the Sanctuary and walls and other 
needs across the years. In 1939, when the Congregation gave up the 
parsonage for an apartment house (managed by the late Max Warshauer), the 
Concordia Society awarded its Orange Street lot to the Congregation. It has 
helped the children with religious education across the generations, for "he 
(or she) who teaches a child labors with God in His Workshop." 

From its first presidents, Mrs. Nathaniel Jacobi, Mrs. A. Shrier, and Mrs. A. 
Liebman, through its latest president, Mrs. Max Kahn, Concordia has been a 
source of strength and inspiration of many-faceted values for the life of the 
Congregation in its entirety. 

As Dr. Karl Rosenthal indicates in a summary of Temple of Israel for its 
Seventy-fifth Anniversary on May 12, 1951, this Temple has taken literally the 
great life-goal of Jeremiah when he bade the Jewish people even in his time 
(Chapter 26), "Seek ye the peace of the city in which ye are, and pray for it 
unto the Lord... plant vineyards... raise families... build homes..." The 
members of this historic Congregation have taken to heart the prophetic 
teachings of the generations, labored for truth and justice and peace... even 
unto sacrifice. This was exemplified by participation of its sons and daughters 
in the wars of America. During World War I, two sacrificed their lives, 
Arthur Bluenthenthal, after whom the Wilmington airport was named, and 
Edwin Sternberger. In World War II, three were called unto death: Robert 
Goldberg, son of Mr. and Mrs. Aaron Goldberg, James Herzberg, son of Dr. 
and Mrs. Mortimer Herzberg; Arthur A, Schwartz, son of Mr. and Mrs. I. 
Schwartz. Many scores were involved with a record of service, in this Con- 
gregation, in shared responsibility for the Civil War through Vietnam, across 
the century. 



20 



A number of civic experiences were also memorable and creditable across the 
years. These include the Solomon Towers (1972), a tribute to Harry Meyer 
Solomon, also a gift of a school building in 1911 by Sam Bear (now an open lot 
across from New Hanover High School) and the name of Isaac Bear Hall for the 
new business building on the present campus of the University of North 
Carolina-Wilmington, as well as a Memorial Wildflower Preserves there in 
honor of the late Herbert Bluethenthal, dedicated on November 8, 1974. A 
number of benefactions have been anonymous in nature but by a limited 
number of congregants in Temple of Israel to the Congregation and to civic 
life in the city. A large number are active participants in civic clubs, city and 
county programs of many values for the public welfare. This has been so 
throughout the century of its life. 

This spirit was manifested in civic friendship in the hour of need, according 
to James Sprunt's "CHRONICLES:" 

"But while the congregation is pursuing the even tenor of a Jewish insti- 
tution and the Temple of Israel naturally resounds with the worship of the God 
of Israel, the Scriptural word employed by Dr. Mendelsohn in the course of his 
dedicatory sermon, 'mine house shall be called an house of prayer for all 
people' was practically exemplified during the spring of 1886 and thereafter. 
On the 21st day of February the beautiful and commodious edifice of the Front 
Street Methodist Episcopal Church went down in ashes in a conflagration that 
destroyed an appalling number of buildings, and the congregation became 
homeless. The morning of February 23, however, brought relief to that 
congregation in the form of a cordial invitation for the rabbi and directors of 
the temple, tendering to their grieving friends the use of that sacred edifice 
for any and all occasions that require a church, and in general, to make the 
temple their religious home. The invitation was gratefully accepted, and for a 
little over two years the bereft Methodist Episcopal Congregation regularly 
worshiped there, and the Young Men's Christian Association of that church 
met there. During that time there never was a conflict of the hours of service 
between the owners of the building and their guests. When either 
congregation needed the temple for special services, its minister informed the 
minister of the other congregation, and between them the hours were 
conveniently arranged. And not only did the ministers accomodate each other 
in the matter of time, but several times one took the place of the other when 
the other was out of town." 

The temple was offered likewise to the First Presbyterian Church, January 
1, 1926, in a similar disaster, but was not utilized because of need for larger 
facilities on Sundays. 

The same spirit was "inherited" in our own contemporary years, when for 
three continuous years (1974, 1975, 1976), exchanges of pulpits and 
congregations were shared successively with St. James, First Baptist, and 
Grace United Methodist Congregations, and when other parallel events were 
ecumenic "happenings" that served Temple of Israel and the larger 
community in an expanding spirit of fellowship. The account of the story of 
Temple of Israel in the larger framework of history of the Lower Cape Fear 
area, could not be complete without a roster of its Presidents who guided it, 
and of the Rabbis who sustained it in their life-labor, and who, together with 
the many others as officers, board members and co-workers, have preserved 
its fiscal and physical maintenance and the Rabbis who have perpetuated its 
heritage from the past and project its goals and ideals into the future... "unto 
this very day." 



21 



Solomon Bear 
Bernhard Solomon 
Marcus W. Jacobi 



December 1872 to February 1904; 
February 1904 to January 1923; 
February 1923 to January 1928; 



Others who followed, according to their terms of office, to this very Centennial 

are: 

Harry Solomon 1951 through 1952; 

Robert Kallman 1952 through 1953; 

Solomon Sternberger 1954 through 1956; 

Aaron Goldberg 1956 through 1957; 

Frank Oppenheimer 1958 through 1959; 

Dr. Samuel Warshauer I960 through 1961; 

Sigmund Solomon 1962 through 1963; 

Harold Blakeman 1964 through 1965; 

David Zipser 1966 through 1967; 

Jessie Weiner 1968 through 1969; 

Melvin Mack 1971 through 1973; 

Fred Sternberger 1974 through 1975; 

Dr. Henry Schafer 1976 - 

The Rabbis who have occupied this historic pulpit and served the 

congregation and the larger community via the Four P's of the Rabbinate, 

Pulpiteering, Pedagogical, Pastoral and Public Relations, are as follows: 

Dr. Samuel Mendelsohn - February 1876 to September 1922. (Since almost 

half of the life-line of Temple of Israel has been served so long and so well by 

this one Rabbi, we dedicate this booklet to him.) 

* Rabbi Harvey Wessell - September to November 1, 1922; (probably the 
shortest record of service, due to an invitation then from Har Sinai 
Congregation in Baltimore, Maryland); 

Rabbi Frederick I. Rypins - September 1, 1923 to September 1928; 

* Rabbi Benjamin Kelson - 1928-1936; 

* Rabbi Mordecai M. Thurman - 1936-1945; 

* Rabbi William Sajowitz -January 1946-January 1947; 
Rabbi Pizer Jacobs - January - September 1948; 

Dr. Karl Rosenthal - September 1949 to July 1952; 

* Rabbi David Greenberg - September 1952 to September 1953; 

* Rabbi Jacob Sober - 1954-1956; 

* Rabbi Israel Kaplan - September 1956 to June 1957; 

Rabbi Howard L. Fineberg - September 1957 to December 1972; 

* Dr. Martin M. Weitz - January 1974... 
(* Rabbis now living). 

Temple of Israel has served the Jewish and general community continuously 
and creatively for over one hundred years, from 1876 to 1976. It is the oldest 
Jewish congregation in North Carolina, so commemorated by an historical 
street-marker, authorized January 29, 1951 by the Department of Archives 
and History in Raleigh and so observed by a special plaque presented 
February 6, 1976, by the Historical Wilmington Foundation at a special 
service. It has been an affiliate of the Union of American Hebrew 
Congregations since 1878 and was awarded a citation for "Century of 
Illustrious Spiritual. Services" at the Biennial Convention of the Union of 
American Hebrew Congregation at Dallas, Texas, November 1975. It has 
been host to countless thousands of servicemen during war years and also 
even in recent years from a variety of faiths and a diversity of cultures, a 
spiritual home-away-from-home for them, as well as a fulfillment of hour-fold 



22 



function across this Centennial in the larger format of America's Bicentennial. 
THE TEMPLE OF ISRAEL IS: 

1. A "Blockhouse" of strength, and armory of spirit, a source of religious 
creativity against chaos, uncertainty and anxiety. It is a means of sustenance 
from the past, and a strength for the future. 

2. A "Schoolhouse" for all ages and persons. "The world rests on the breath 
of school-children". ..."I have learned much from my parents, more from my 
teachers, but most from my pupils." 

3. A "Powerhouse" which generates spiritual energy to withstand not merely 
the barbs of prejudice, but the arrows of misfortune. 

4. A "Lighthouse" in an era of darkness, for the quest, "Let there be Light." 




Judah P. Benjamin, recognized as "(he most 
famous Jew" in 19th Century America. 




Aaron Lopez, owned one of America's largest merchant fleets, a major factor 
in the Colonies' ability to revolt. 




Haym Sal 



as twice arrested by the British and twice escaped execution. 



2^ 



RABBIS AT "TEMPLE OF ISRAEL" — 1876 - 1976 

Note: These are excerpted from epistles from all surviving rabbis who have 
served Temple of Israel since the death of Dr. Samuel Mendelsohn in 1922, and 
who have answered our letter of invitation to share: "What Are Your Most 
Significant Impressions of Your Year(s) Here? ' ' We have heard from all save 
one... 

Rabbi Harvey E. Wessel: 1922 

"I came to Wilmington from Asheville where I had gone in 1919 as a student 
in my last year before ordination to officiate for the Holy Days and was asked to 
return as rabbi. I came to Wilmington as a very young man, following closely 
upon the death of the elderly Rabbi Samuel Mendelsohn. (The CCAR 
Yearbooks give the year of his death incorrectly as 1923.) I recall hearing it said 
that a son of his was professor of mathematics at CCNY (now CUNY) and the 
one who was credited with breaking the secret military code of Japan and that 
his wife was a Jastrow, sister of the Morris J. and Joseph J. Jastrow, professors 
at the U. of Pennsylvania and U. of Wisconsin, all children of the great Marcus 
Jastrow, compiler of the highly esteemed Talmudic Dictionary of 1926. Robert 
Jastrow, probably a member of this scholarly family, is a present-day great in 
the NASA program and on the origin and age of the universe . ' ' 

"Youth has its advantages and these were mine in Wilmington for the little 
while before I was released to go to Baltimore. I was popular; people came to 
Temple to hear me and to my book talks which Mrs. Herbert Bluethenthal 
arranged for me to give in homes (or a home) - a pattern which persisted 
everywhere I went afterwards. Also, I associate with Wilmington the doubts 
when I enrolled in an evening law school, as if I might some day choose to 
switch callings, but not for any discouragement that I suffered at the time. I 
also remember that the president of the Congregation politely and discreetly 
disapproved of some evidences of my youthfulness, innocent enough in 
themselves - my dancing, I believe - and noticeably only in contrast with the 
age of the prior occupant of the pulpit - or so I fondly believe to this day." 

"Give our love most particularly to Janet Bluethenthal with whom 
association on a trip to Israel recently and by an occasional letter through the 
years remained my single, constant tie with Wilmington. I am grateful to you 
for the remembrance that now renews and shows 'special concern for your (my) 
time in Wilmington.'" 

Rabbi Benjamin Kelson (by his daughter): 1928 - 1936 

"Rabbi Kelson remembers Wilmington as a quaint Southern city. The 
Rabbi, Boston-born, and his wife, Jeannette Spicer of New York and 
Springfield, Massachusetts, were given in Wilmington a glimpse of a Southern 
town retaining the atmosphere of the old South before the War Between the 
States. Their daughter is a native of Wilmington. The Rabbi remembers the 
wharves, the old homes that remained from antebellum days, brick houses, the 
river that led to the park and to the Atlantic Ocean, and the smell offish. ' ' 

"The Rabbi was developing himself as a religious leader. He made an 
impression not only upon the members his congregation, but upon the whole 
general community. He was a leading member of the Rotary Club. The Reform 
community was predominantly of American background and exemplified some 



24 



of the best aspects of modern Judaism in those days. Rabbi Kelson was able to 
fit himself into this atmosphere, and at the beginning of his ministry he showed 
the ability to bring out humane values that everyone should understand. The 
Rabbi remained in Wilmington for eight years. ' ' 

Rabbi William Sajowitz: 1946 - 1947 

"Both Ruth and I join in sending you our heartfelt greetings on this 
significant occasion. This was our first pulpit after ordination and contained 
some important experiences, valuable friends, and the beginning of a very 
satisfying rabbinate. Wilmington's mixture of young and old, of deep rooted 
tradition, plus Wrightsville Beach, was great." 

"Ruth and I are both well. We have been blessed with two lovely daughters 
and a fine son-in-law, and are still busy reaching out to combine families and 
faith to add to the roots and growth of both. ' 

"I envy you the privilege of having Dr. Marcus - there is no finer!" 

Rabbi David Greenberg: 1952 - 1953 

"Please convey to your congregants our profound good wishes on this 
significant anniversary and our prayerful hope that this historic congregation 
will continue to serve God and humanity into the infinite future." 

"Marilyn and I came to Wilmington for the High Holy Days shortly after the 
tragic, sudden passing of Dr. Karl Rosenthal and were so taken with the beauty 
of the area and the warmth and faithfulness of the congregation that we 
determined to stay until it was my turn to enter the naval chaplaincy. We look 
back on the period as an idyllic honeymoon, the best possible introduction to a 
career of service to Judaism." 

"We experienced hospitality and friendship. The Bluethenthals made 
available to us their home on the empty autumnal beach at Wrightsville. We 
have been beach people ever since. Lena Bear drew for us the family tree 
showing the interrelationships of all the families. Kallmans, Warshauers, 
Solomons, Newmans, Jacobis and many more welcomed, guided and aided 
us." 

"With rare understanding and appreciation of my desire to continue my 
studies they encouraged me to journey each week to Chapel Hill." 

"The young couple who came to Wilmington as newlyweds now have five 
children, three of whom are in college already. Our oldest is engaged to be 
wed. After twenty-five years of service in Wilmington, the Navy and Scarsdale, 
we remember Wilmington with nostalgic affection and gratitude for what we 
learned and experienced there." 

Rabbi Jacob M. Sober: 1954 - 1956 

' 'Upon reflection upon the years of my ministry to Temple Israel from 1954 to 
1956, it appears to me that this phase in the history of the Temple was part of a 
larger period." 

"Most members of the congregation had raised their families and seen them 
leave their respective homes to build their own lives elsewhere. For those who 
had stayed the retrospective phase of life had come." 

"Naturally, this sunset mood was carried over from individual experience 
into the life of the Temple. Concern with community affairs was more 



25 



important and challenging, especially since there was almost no influx into the 
congregation. 

"However, life does not move in a straight line; it move in cycles, and a new 
beginning must follow a period when tasks were completed. The transitory 
period in between is one of rest and reflection. ' ' 

"The years of my ministry were part of that period of transition which 
cultivated pride of past accomplishments and the desire to preserve them." 

"In the meantime, no doubt the first steps will have become visible which 
will get the Temple ready to serve a new generation and thus add a new chapter 
to its proud history. ' ' 

Rabbi (Emeritus) Israel L. Kaplan: 1956 - 1957 

"It brings back very pleasant memories of the year I served as interim 
spiritual leader, the warm hospitality of the Congregation and the fine 
leadership as President in Mr. Goldberg, who took such a personal interest in 
me. and provided all the comforts and delights as host, to a Rabbi Emeritus who 
flew every other weekend to serve the members of the Congregation and the 
children in the Religious School. There were not too many highlights that 
occured during the 1956 year, except to add that I enjoyed every minute of it. I 
became.known as the Flying Rabbi for the following two years when I went by 
air to serve the Temples at Gadsden, Alabama and Albany, Georgia." 

"Mine is rather a unique Rabbinate in that after serving my members in 
Jacksonville for thirty years, 1916 to 1946, I still could not remain inactive in 
helping the many communities that were without a rabbi during the next thirty 
years." 

"I recall vividly my attending your Yom Kippur service at Atlantic City and 
more pleasurably our receiving our honorary D. D. degrees from our Alma 
Mater, and spending the lovely evening together at the home of Abraham 
Cronbach." 




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5.3^hj-V:^- 



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26 



THE STORY OF CONCORDIA SOCIETY AT 
TEMPLE OF ISRAEL 

By Lena Solomon Bear (May 13, 1882 - July 21, 1975) 

NOTE: This was presented in 1965 as a review and we include it here for our 
Centennial materials - for perspective today - in 1976. 

I have been asked to give a history of our temple . I feel most unqualified for this 
undertaking except that the matter of years permits me to look back longer than any 
other member of the congregation. Many incidents in my life have given me a 
feeling of love and veneration for our historically interesting and religiously 
important place of v/orship. It is historically interesting because it was the first 
Jewish place of worship to be built in North Carolina under the inspiration of Dr. 
Marcus Jastrow who was brought here from Philadelphia to talk about the religious 
needs of the community. A site was purchased at the southeast corner of Fourth 
and Market Streets. Ground was broken in March 1875 and the cornerstone was 
laid on June 15th of that year under the auspices of St. John's Lodge of the Order of 
Masons. Incidently, Dr. Jastrow's prayer - book was used for many years in our 
temple service. 

Since the new membership for this young group was confined to men, the women 
were anxious to aid in the work and an auxiliary was formed at that time and named 
Ladies Concordia Society. Mrs. Nathaniel Jacobi was the first president. 

Members of the young congregation contracted with the Abbotts Building 
Company for the erection of the building at a cost of $20,000. James Walker, 
architect, drew the plans and Captain R. S. Radcliff was engaged to superintend the 
work. It was said of Sol Bear, the first president, that when anyone wanted to find 
him while the temple was being built that he was never at his home or place of 
business but he was watching each day's work in the erection of our beautiful 
building. It was no easy matter to finance the building, but the generosity of 
Christian friends, as well as the enthusiasm and determination of the early 
members made it possible. All records seem to be lost so I cannot find the names of 
the charter members. 

In appreciation of the sense of friendship and to serve our first needs, Rabbi S. 
Mendelsohn taught that our temple should be a place of worship for all the people. 
Our temple was offered to the Congregation of Front Street Methodist Episcopal 
Church when its building was burned and this offer was accepted for worship and 
used for over two years. Again, when St. Paul's Lutheran Parochial School building 
was burned we offered our schoolrooms for their use, but this area was too small, 
therefore the offer was not accepted. All of this follows our teaching that all men 
are brothers and we welcome them all according to the quotation over our entrance, 
' 'Blessed are they who come in the name of the Lord. ' ' 

May I here presume to add a personal note. I attended Sabbath School from 
primary to senior class. I won a Sir Moses Montefiore medal. I was confirmed and 
was brought regularly to services and was allowed to teach. I was married here; my 
oldest daughter was married here; my children's births and names were announced 
from this pulpit; my husband was brought here for his funeral service and, may I 
add, I have fought single - handed to keep the doors of the temple open for Sabbath 
morning services. 

In the course of the years, we have had twelve different Rabbis, namely, Dr. 
Samuel Mendelsohn (who received his doctorate from the University of North 
Carolina). Our first Rabbi gave forty-six years of service and lesser terms were 
served by Harvey Wessell, Frederick Rypins, Benjamin Kelson, Mordecai 
Thurman, William Sajowitz, Pizer Jacobs, Dr. Karl Rosenthal, David Greenberg, 

27 



Jacob Zaber, Israel Kaplan and Howard Fineberg. We have been privileged to 
have our religious services conducted by these fine men, and for the organizational 
leadership our presidents have been Solomon Bear, who served thirty-two years, 
Berhard Solomon, who served nineteen years, and Marcus Jacobi, who served five 
years and I must tell you that these earnest men attended faithfully not only Friday 
night services but every Saturday morning. Following these long - term officers 
were Herbert Bluethenthal, Harry Solomon, David Jacobi, Aaron Goldberg, 
Clarence Sternberger, George Caplan, Solomon Sternberger, Dr. Samuel 
Warshauer, Robert Kallman, Sigmond Solomon, and Harold Blakeman. 

During the years there have been no radical changes made in the exterior or 
interior of the temple except for those changes in the basement made to meet the 
needs of the Sabbath School and for social functions. 

Our interests were broadened ay affiliation with the Union of American Hebrew 
Congregations, an orgainzation of Reform Temples with headquarters and college 
in Cincinnati, Ohio (now in New York City for several decades). 

It may be interesting to note as part of our history that various gifts have been 
made through the years. No bequests are mentioned. Samuel Bear, Jr. offered to 
put in Memorial Windows but these were refused because of the Second 
Commandment, (believed erroneously at the time to be so - Editor's note). 

Our women's auxiliary, called the Ladies Concordia Society, has given a 
parsonage house. This was originally a wooden-frame building on Orange Street 
between Fifth and Sixth Streets. (I remember when Mrs. Mendelsohn moved in she 
said she was sure she would enjoy living there as soon as she got rid of the roaches 
and bed bugs!) The house eventually was torn down and replaced by our present 
apartment building, one apartment of which is presently used as a parsonage for 
our Rabbi. I must mention that the responsibility for this building's careful 
supervision was given by our Mr. Max Washauer. Concordia also gave our fine 
people an organ, and I have been told, though I cannot verify it, that $1,000 was 
given by the Goodman-Liebman family to lift the final indebtedness on this organ. 

The handsome chandelier was given by Mr. and Mrs Liebman as a memorial to 
their son. The big Torah was given by the Jacobi family after the death of Mr. 
Nathaniel Jacobi. The small Torah was given as a memorial for Mrs. Sam Bear, Sr. 
The decoration for the Torah was given as a memorial for Sam Bear, Jr. Mrs. 
Mendelshon gave a handsome Menorah Light, a handsome silver goblet and an 
esrog dish. Mrs. Bernhard Solomon gave the hymnal racks for each pew in the 
temple and the pulpit reading lamp. Silver candlesticks were given by Mrs. Henry 
Bear. The big bronze vase in front of the pulpit was given by friends as a memorial 
for Mrs. Marcus (Blanche) Jacobi. Red draperies for the Ark and Pulpit were given 
by Mrs. Louis Shrier and Mrs. Debbie Shrier Kahn. White draperies (for Holidays) 
were given by Mrs. Nettie Stern. The stop-handrail was given by Mrs. Louis 
Shrier. A fine Bible was given by Mrs. Joseph Jacobi. The United States flag was 
given by Mrs. Karl Rosenthal. A Shofar was given by Mr. Willie Rosenman. 
Carpeting was given by Sabbath School children through their Carpet Fund Society. 
A Bible-stand was given through use of Pulpit Fund money collected by Dr. 
Rosenthal. Prayer-books have been given by various members of the congregation. 

In 1951 our temple proudly and with great dignity celebrated a Seventy-Fifth 
Anniversary and this year 1965 we will celebrate with equal pride ninety years of 
honorable Jewish life in this community. Our membership at present is forty-one 
paying members and twelve contributing members. 

I feel that your temple stands as a symbol to tell our little world here that Judaism 
lives on and I pray that it may grow from strength to strength. 

(This is updated 'by a special article from 1965 - where Mrs. Bear leaves off - to the 
present, by Lillian Sternberger of our congregation). 

28 



REMARKS AND NOTES ON OUR TEMPLE HISTORY 

by 

Lillain S. Sternberger 
[March, 1876) 

Dr. Weitz has asked me, as one of the oldest members of the Temple, in point of 
membership, to revise and bring Mrs. Bear's history up to date. 

I would rather not disturb her interesting personal memoir, but I will add a few 
remarks, befor completing the last ten years of our history. 

My memory of the Mendelsohn's is most vivid. He was a stern scholar, who, 
when he was not at the Temple, spent his time in the study of the parsonage. 
He was quite renowned and had rhe honor of translating the Book of Haggai for 
thejewish Publication Society Bible, published in 1917. 

Mrs. Mendelsohn was much more sociable. She taught kindergarten class in the 
Sabbath School, and supplemented their meager income by teaching German and 
baking. She delighted all the children with her wonderful talent to tell us fairy 
tales. 

Every Passover, they invited the Confirmands to their home for Seder. 

We were fortunate to have other outstanding Rabbis of whom space does not 
allow me to speak. However, I would like to mention Dr. Karl Rosenthal, formerly 
Rabbi of the Berlin Reform Congregation, who came here in 1949, shortly after 
arriving in this country, having been forced to leave Germany. 

His wife, "Trudie" as she affectionately is known to all, was trapped in Holland, 
and confined to a concentration camp for many years. She still lives here, but 
unfortunately, Dr. Rosenthal died suddenly in 1952. 

The Ladies Concordia Society was actually organized before the Temple was 
built, for the purpose of promoting the cause of Judaism and aiding by funds and 
services in maintaining the Temple. It is a member of the National Federation of 
Temple Sisterhoods. Concordia has contributed to the Temple's material needs, 
has helped in operating costs, and has supervised the maintenance of the Temple 
and operation of the Sabbath School. 

In early days, they had two celebrations - the Concordia "birthday party" and 
the Purim Ball. The latter was held at the old Harmony Circle Club and began in 
early afternoon with games, dancing, and then a grand march of the children to the 
supper. Following this, the Sabbath School presented a play. In days of little 
activities for children, this event was excitedly anticipated weeks in advance. 

Later, Concordia sponsored Chanukah suppers, public Seders, Oneg Shabats, 
and a break-the-fast at Yom Kippur. During World War II, the lounge was 
remodeled, and affairs given there for the armed forces. 

After the Harmony Club was disbanded, affairs were given in the Temple lounge 
or various halls. 

Mention has been made by Mrs. Bear of the Brotherhood services. Each year, 
our Rabbi exchanges pulpits for a service with a neighboring pastor. 

Since 1965, changes have taken place in the Temple. Besides the Temple 
Presidents already mentioned, the following members have served: Frank 
Oppenheimer, David Zipser, Jesse Wiener, Melvin Mack, Robert Berman, Fred 
Sternberger, and Dr. Henry Schafer. 

The 90th Anniversary was celebrated by services in the Temple and there was 
also a celebration for the 95th Anniversar> - Temple services, receptions, and a 
memorial service, which the young people helped to conduct, and a banquet. On 



this occasion, present members as well as former ones, scattered over the country, 
contributed in excess of $15,000 to make necessary repairs to the Temple building. 

In December, 1972, we were shocked at the sudden death of our beloved Rabbi, 
Howard Fineberg, who had served us so faithfully and so well. He was a gentle, fine 
person, loved and respected by the entire community. 

The Congregation was without a Rabbi for an entire year, but not without a 
leader. Our President, Robert Berman, ably took over. He conducted services each 
Friday night, reading the Hebrew and giving us a sermon. He even gave his time to 
prepare a student for his Bar Mitzvah. 

In July, 1973, Dr. Martin M. Weitz visited us and agreed to take over the pulpit in 
January, 1974. He came several times that fall for special events. 

We are most fortunate to have Dr. Weitz. He is a scholar, a dynamic leader, and 
a compassionate pastor. He has made a name for himself throughout the city. 

There has been a definite change in the composition of our membership over the 
years. Some years ago, a young Rabbi left us in the middle of the season, 
complaining we were all too old. 

Today, there are descendants of only seven or eight of the original families in 
the Temple. 

With the growth of the city, industry has brought many young families to us. Our 
present membership is seventy-two and there are thirty-two children in the Sabbath 
School. These young people are contributing an enormous amount of time and 
energy to our community. The women are active in Concordia Committees - the 
men are interested in Temple affairs. 

We older members welcome this new blood. We feel with the approach of our 
Centennial Year, we may well turn over our Temple to their capable hands. We are 
all contributing once again to the fund for Temple maintenance - and look forward 
to the start of another century, knowing that with a devoted and brilliant Rabbi, and 
an enthusiastic congregation, our Temple will continue to grow and to promote the 
cause of Judaism here, and throughout the world. 




A GROUP PORTRAIT: Circa 1900 
Back row: Ike Solomon, Henry Weil; Second row: Julius Taylor, Jake Solomon; 
Front row: Extreme right, Lillie Taylor Weil 



;o 



THE BIBLICAL GARDEN 

A project of Ladies Concordia Society 
By Mildred Solomon 

The grounds along one side of the Temple of Israel had always posed a problem. 
The space was too small for an activity area or for parking cars, so the tiny yard was 
simply planted with grass and mostly ignored. 

In 1963, Ruby Zipser and Blaine Warshauer were delegates to District Eight 
Convention where one of the speakers lectured on "Biblical Gardens." When these 
delegates returned home, they reported on this to Conc.ordia and cited a book, 
"ALL THE PLANTS OF THE BIBLE," by Winifred Walker ( 114 flowers, fruits, 
shrubs, herbs), published by Harpers, New York, 1943. This was subsequently 
purchased by Marie Kahn. The book aroused the members with an idea for planting 
the "problem" space next to the Temple. With membership approval, the several 
fund-raising projects to acquire the resources to go forward, the Biblical Garden 
was begun. 

Sue Burke, a member of Sisterhood then, and a nationally known horticulturist , 
was in charge of research to select the plants mentioned in the Bible which would 
successfully grow in North Carolina. A neighbor and friend of the Temple, Mr. 
Augustus Moore, became interested in our efforts and volunteered to draw the 
landscape plans. The garden was planted in its entireity under a contract with a local 
nursery. Later members added the statue, benches and markers. Additional bulbs 
and annuals have been added on an annual basis. 

A formal dedication with noted civic leaders, newspaper and photographic 
coverage took place May 12. 1971, as part of the Ninety-Fifth Anniversary 
celebration of the Temple. A bronze plaque commemoration this event was placed on 
the building. To preserve the story of the garden's progress, an album was kept 
with art-work by Marie Kahn and copy by Mildred Solomon. Since the garden 
would interest District #8 because the plan was initiated from its meeting, the 
Album was offered to District #8 for consideration as Ladies Concordia Society's 
contribution to the "Project of the Year." District #8 subsequently 'awarded Ladies 
Concordia Society for the best "Project of the Year," and sent the Sisterhood a 
tablet so indicating. This plaque hangs in the Temple Lounge as a reminder of what 
some imagination and much hard work may accomplish. 

District #8, in turn, forwarded the Album to National Federation of Temple 
Sisterhoods as the District's foremost effort of that year, and surprisingly, National 
Federation of Temple Sisterhoods mimeographed an adaption of the entire program 
for distribution to Sisterhoods all over the world. As a result of this publicity, for 
some time Ladies Concordia Society received requests to assist other Sisterhoods in 
starting similar gardens. 

The Biblical Garden is included in "Wilmington Garden Tours" and the Garden 
enhances the charm of Temple of Israel which also is in the Archives of the 
Wilmington Historic Society. 




n 



A COLLAGE IN CLIPPINGS 

By William Reaves 






i will pie* 1 - ,i \ 

u< lara wed) c |ltnv ' r \ 

| D-»lb or Ji r . B,„ trl . „„., 

Mr. Morris Bear, senior member of 
the Arm of Morris Bear & Bro , whole 
sale dry goods merchants of this city 
died suddenly yesterday afternoon at 
Marion, McDowell county, at which 
place he had just arrived while on a 
journey through the western part of 
the State for the benefit of his health * 
Information of the sad event was re- 
oeived here by telegraph, and arrang, . 
ments were at once made for the re 
moval of the remains of the deceased 
to tins city for interment. The body 
is expected to arrive here this even- 
ing and the funeral to take place to- 
morrow at 9.30 a. m. MrBearwasa 
native of New York and about 41 
years of age. He had been engaged 
■ n business in Wilmington for the 
past 21 years, and was one of its most 
successful merchants He was a man 
of generous nature, a kind heart, and 
was devoted to the interests of the 
oity of his adoption. 

rankle "• l"" 01 - ' Z a,,'* ami the 

iBOBBA-M-oto-J" ^ h lU clironology . Ser- 
ing to the Jew . 0!)r0 pii»te »ur- 

I vices wm be held and o *pp ^^ I 
LondeUvereobyh «ev- 3Q ^ d 

atl Uc BJ cago E uc.tl»-'"'S ;k 
,rrow moiniDga' luotl 



■ ■■era b. b a 



I the marriage of Miss Lillian A S. 1 1. 
I mon. daughter ol Mr. and Mrs. Si! 
pound Solomon and Allied Cci 

Sternberger, son of Mi - Re :, 

j Sterberger and the late Jacob Stem 
I beicer. will be solemnized nl the Ten 

pie of Irael. Rabbi l-'rederi. l( Ry|uu 

officiating. 

The bride-elect has chosen for hi 

maid of honor. Miss Lucille Slernbei 

ger, sister of the groom, the bride 



aids 



lie tin 



ride 



cousins. Miss Elizahelh Solomon of 
AV'ilmlngton. -Miss Florett, Schlo'ss, 01 
New l'ork. and Miss Florence Roths- 
child, of Elkins Park. Pa The flower 
girl will be little Miss Barbara Green 
woo. I. of Philadelphia, niece of the i 
bride. 

The groom will have for his best 
nun, his brother. Henry Stornberger. I 
|and the groomsmen will be Nathan J 
IJacobl, Abram Solomon. Julius E. 



Sle 



rger 



of this city. He 



:.nd , 



Langford of Newbury, S 
James Jones, of Fayettevllle. 

Following the ceremony the bridal 
party, relatives of the young couple. 
and a few friends will be the guests 
of the bride's, «hT«#t*, Mr. and Mrs I 
S Solomog»^" : k.*6an#*' And dance at 
the Cajs^KSr Hotel. 



mmm m m 



m 



HERE TO ATTEND WEDDLNG 

ominent People From a Distance Ar- 
rive for Ceremony Tomorrow. 
I A large party of friends and rela- 
tives from a distance have BnirVed to 
attend the marriage of Miss Rachel 
Julia Solomon, daughter of Mr and 
Mrs. B. Solomon, of this city, and Mr. 
Joseph Blumenthal, son of Mr. and 
Mrs. Samuel Blumenthal, of Philadel- 
phia, which will be solemnized tomor- 
row afternoon at 5 o'clock at the Tem- 
ple of Israel. In this city, the Rev. Dr, 
S. Mendelsohn officiating. 

In the partv are Mr. and Mrs. Sam- 
uel Blumenthal. Mr. and Mrs. Joel 
Berg. Mr. Harry Kline, Mr. A he Uvy, 
Messrs. Aaron and Abe Blumenthal. 
Miss Edna Blumenthal and Mr. and 
Mrs. I,. Brunhlll. of Philadelphia: 
Miss Edna May. Rome. Oa.; Mr. and 
Mrs. Eugene Lyon, Cincinnati: Miss 
Helen Solomon. Chivy Chas-? College: 
I Mr. Harry Solomon. University of 
North Carolina, and Mr. Joe Blumen- 
thal Many of the visilors either form- 
erly resided here^or har j many friends 
in Wilmington, who are delighted to 
welcome them for (heir present visit. 
The groom, who is se>ior member of 
the firm of Blumenthal Broth- rs; Mr. 
land Mrs. S. Blumenthal and Miss 
Edna Blumenthal. of Philadelphia, are 
guests at the home of Mr, Henry C 
Bear, Sixth and Princess streets, and 
Mr. and Mrs. Jo-.d Berg, of Philadel- 
phia, are guests at the home of Mr. 
and Mrs. A. Shrier. on Market street. 



W -»« 8| ,. u 




s U ;;::;:: J -"" i > -.■.,;;;,; '™ r """" w 

charier" °°i"J. jlnd have , "' ' 

David I' ''"" '""'-* S 7Z ni 

Stein vvard E j, M. ■,,-, 



- Edward h 
and they subs 

''" "Jed" lm '„ S, ,'' k ' Ul " ''• ' ,'; 
fi* Per Share'""',,'" "'■ M 

^"&* ltio ^ '° a " "".on,,," 



•tail elori, "" s c ".v a \ih', '"" "- 1 
uise ►,.,_,-■ lr ""S and c,.„, , ,''""''• in, 

Duratfo SS ' '"■■■- t,., ,, 

rears " " tested ^ 



nd 



_ Mr- Sol. <-• e lt , V">'\'\ 



"not le Temple of Israel, will gire 

.' " t,lt,l "" 1| e»ttn- 1 i,„ r ,. ow , li ,..° J 
' oneordia Hall-,, , ,»,., ' °, a ' 



Hall— „ leiietili, 

enjoyable festival 
"•eeks since, but wl, ic 
weatli 



ml 



weartier, so m "° t " ' 

Rented from attending'" Mn'fr- 'f„' r 

| FUNERAL OF MRS. SOL BEAR. 

7-it-lfOO— 

Conducted from R«.«e.c. .« Th.» CU, 

Yesterdiy Afternoon. 

A lar,e number of friends gathered 
velrdav afternoon at 5 o'clock to 
a tend the funeral of Mrs. Sol Bear, 
'which took place from the fam.ly res. 

r C " "°\ZZ*™ Dr. Tet 

and were very impresstye. The inter 
menrwas in the Jewish cemeery a 
Oakdale and many beautiful Moral 
olferinss were laid upon the grave i. 
tolrnof the very high esteem 
which she was held in the community. 
The ollowing were the pall bearers 

rr :<■■* Messrs A.Weill, and N. 
Honoraiy, M g g 0o mon, I. 

Jacobi ; active, Messrs. o. a 
L Greenewald, George Honnett, J- 
Well 1. Shrier, William Goodman, 
| L Bluethenthal and A^avpl 



Mr Leopold liliieilien.lml and 

Miss J. Dannenbaum wore united in 

marriage yestcniay nmruin" at S 

o'clock at the Temple of Israel, on 

^J' c "'i'lh and Market streets The 

£> J, " " no "- v ^f pertormod by the Rov. 

0^1, ^Mendelsohn and a large m.m- 

v^ ,[., 1 •r', rescut tv witu «a ""■ 

^'-;?h f l S , H>, dcoorations for the 
-ua-ion were very pretty and at the 
^conclusion of the ceremony congrat- 
ulations ami floral tokens were 
showered upon the happy pair. They 
were also the recipients of many 
handsome and valuable presents " 
Mr. Bluethenthal is a prominent 
merchant or Wilmington, being 
junior partner of the wholesale dry' 
goods house of V. Rheinstein & Co., 
and his bride, a beautiful and accom- 
plished young l.idv of ourcitv is a 
sister „f Mrs. F. Rheinstein." The 
hndal couple loll ,,„ the !) a ni 
northbound tram and will take an 
extensive Northern lour. We wish J 
"'""' m "" h happiness and a M r„ 



-. „l I.r««l 
The Te»V' e °' . workmen 
Darl0B the «arm «a ^r lh hom . 

we D re busily ^ v ,^fmaWn«r»oBWerab e 

i mpr „vemeowU. .x\ capacl , The 

Thursday OTen i n *,"rioa ii » °' cl ? C ^' 



^2 



SAD FUNERAL YESTERDAY 



Remains of Late Mr. Nathaniel Jacot 
Laid to ReBt With Honors of Odd 
Fellows — Services Very Large- 
ly Atteni 



arg--^ 



W 



After solemn and most impressive 
funeral services from tie Temple of 
Israel, Fourth and Market streets, 
yesterday afternoom at 3 o'clock, Rabbi 
S Mendelsohn, D. D. T officiating in the 
presence of an immense throng of sor- 
rowing friends and members of the 
bereaved family, the remains of the 
late Mr. Nathaniel Jacob!, who pass- 
ed away at his home in this city Tues- 
day morning, were laid to rest in 
beautiful Oakdale e.metery with the 
highest honors of the Grand Lodge of 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
of which fraternity the deceased in 
life was such a devoted member for 
bo long a number of years. The 
throngs which gathered to pay a last 
sad mark of respect to this good man 
were so large that the seating capac- 
ity of the synagogue was overtaxed to 
accommodate them and many had to 
remain outBide. Among the large 
crowds in attendance were members 
.ot the four subordinate lodges of Odd 
Fallows in the city and Campbell En- 
campment No. 1 I. O. O. F.. of which 
Mr. JacobI was a constant member 
| for'many years. Members of the 
I Board of Directors of the Mechanics' 
I Association also assembled at their 
Kofflce on Princess street and attended 
| the obsequies in a body, while there 
.lirere tnajmr individual friends not only 
■ from Wilmington but elsewhere in this 
►Tfdnlty. 

Tb>3 funeral hymns were rendered 
by a specal choir at the synagogue and 
[a large number of very beautiful floral 
tributes were laid upon the casket. 
Dr. Mendelsohn paid a beautiful trib- 
ute to the life and characteT of Mr. 
Jacobi and his words in this particu- 
lar struck a responsive chord In the 
hearta of his auditors. 

From the synagogue the long fun- ; 
eral procession moved slowly to Oak- 
dale cemetery wh>. : re the. burial was 
with Grand Lodge honorB. Grand Mas- ■ 
( ter Pen-to Buebee officiating and other | 
Grand Lodge officers participating 
being Grand Trustee C. B. Edwards,' i 
Past Grand Representative C. F. Lums- 1 
den. Grand Treasurer R. J. Jones and ! 
SuperlBteDdent J. F. Brmson, of the ! 
Orphans' Home at Goldsboro of which \ 
Mr. Jacobi was the founder and one j 
^f tile trustees. Grand. 1 Master Boa- ; 
'%** -ami M«ssrs. Edwards and Lnms- 
j den arrived yesterday morning from 
i Raleigh to attend the obsequies and 
J Superintendent Brinson rame In on j 

Se same train from Goldsboro. also j 
be present. 
The pall-bearers for the funeral \ 
were as follows: Honorary. Mr. Rich- [ 
ard J. Jones. Dr. D. W. Bullock. Rev. - 
A. D. McClure, D. D., Mr. W. M. Han- 1 
kins. Mayor William K. Spring* r. Mr. ! 
Marsden Bellamy. Mr. H C. McQueen ! 
and C. B. Edwards, of Raleigh; active, I 
! Messrs. A. David. A. Shrier. C. C. : 
'Covington. Isaac Bear. L. Bluethen- 
tfcal. William Goodman. D. Wliborn 
iDaTlp and Colonel Walker Taylor. 



l<«-aell a9t nj * l '">>. "' '"e T,„, p | e ' of l 

, nn f'"nlfresii, „, "' ert ' : ""l drli've K6 
manner. »'e in a „ i n(ere3tio<j 

'"»nd S0lne sj , ™ (I orga,,,,,,,,. , 

*" dbear '"«thefe cu P;eo]dC d a 

he,,,e mberaof «''^o,, ^ r 

/ M --Bear n «ep,ed L SS P r ^<W" 
A n fea, e r rkS ' n "H 

• CoDcordio a fro "> the t j. 



The congregation of the Temple of 
Israel held a meeting last nipht for 
the purpose of electing a minister, 
according to tbe custom practiced 
annually. The Rev. Dr. Mendelsohn, 
who has faithfully performed the 
duties of this office for twelve years, 
was re-elected. 

Dr. Mendelsohn is greatly beloved, 
Dot only by his congregation, but this 
entire community, and his election 
to his sacred office so many successive 
years is evidence that he still holds 
the affection and confidence of his 
people. ftg£)f$f * 



fe7r d ^t, ^> <* 'ta. InlB 

/ " nail a D t, u * ^"sooi«»„ ir "og 

/ Male- TvT "■" Secre,/ rc ' s,d e n , , 
/»Po 0(J/ "«<■. Our/a, j£ 8 - l Pfeu 

"""fcrancj,-,,,,,," ^<«oc; a . 



, ..... ha5 admitted I 

_Mr M. *■ K ; a Ku — "M 
kis son. Mr. Robert^ . a wtl; * 

^' nh L 5 r ^ conduct under vhe 

LiU hereafter' « KaU & Son \W> , 

j firm name of M- » 



Tho r" " Te "'»'o or r 

"""""aplafe ff '" oa rerap, 6 „, , , 

ent ol 'heir I ° BS,, '^bl e ,1 fIsr «e) 
summer t, iou «> of J ""Prove- / 

Part of ,: acaf 'on afaonf < " lde '*>i n , 



,a "=e B-, n 7 Pr °Posed 

TBHmanTMarriage.^ ^ ^ 

T Abr ftni7T&U^ndM ls: 
Lom^. ben ill. Wilmington 8 

Carrie Bosentl.a , one ut ^^ last 
lovliest young la-m- • q( , brael 

night at 9 o'clock attlie icui H 
in this city. brilliantly lighted 

^-l^^rh^oeUiaa.pa-, 
rfl marguerites, etc oygan 

^-^7 n B£r:^m'- 
^ „,.,.,.,„ the bridal part 



^U,hr,dai party entered . 

order, and Mr. Sehiff and J »^ ^^ 

;i;;i:;;;:^a!a^e,nb la geoMn,nds { 

'Tlie Rev. Dr. S. Mendelaohn. Eabb^ 
the Congregation, rer;.. ^ 

m ony according t-th be wth 

presaive rite o the tu wUte 

^ The beautiful bride v,ore ^^^ o{ 
cordelais silk;«..nmed ^ ^ carried j 
duchew ilace, en m , q£ bridal 

" h " ^d UlSea o£ the valley. Her pnn- 
r.ises and liliiea o ^ hear( . ^^^ 

cinal ornament >™ * , h „oom. 

a „ P t of oiamonds the Biftof tta p^ 

The maid of ' nf th^ride. and the I 
Rosenthal -tero^he R br rf9otWm 

bC8tman«MMriAi The &t _ 

ston, f« me ^ ^L L M amie Bear with 

Mr d Harn Ttosenthal. and Mi- I^« 

/^Srdrs.mScbloaa.of 

Wilmington. J r <«ie8 of white 

T „o bridesmaids wore dre*« 

si)k tulle, ""P'f^S r0 ^ and allies 
lovel bouquet! of br.dal t ro^ Mte and 

of the valK ' . ,, evem ng drees, 
ushers were m full ^ <J pfta of 

The happy l^r r« ei 
beauty and value d anJ ^ Aq 

eats of unbounded cong* honor 

Sf^ht'^^-.ofHan.oBTCu- 
^e bride is a daughter o^the bate Mr. 

^in^rX^n. ^ popuhjr ^ 

lotto. They will lea ^e ^^ 

rooming at 9:30 ocloca on 

tour North- 



33 



The Jew 

and the 

American Revolution 



by 
DR. JACOB R. MARCUS 




Thf War and Its Beginnings, 1775 

The United States in 1976 will find Jews, together with their fellow- 
citizens, celebrating the bicentennial of the American Revolution. 
From the ranks of the Jewish community — now 6,000,000 strong — have 
emerged about two dozen Nobel Prize winners during the last generation. 
It is the most affluent, the most generous Jewry the world has yet known; 
the gross national product of its social and cultural institutions totals 
annually about $1,500,000,000. This imposing complex of societies and 
organizations is a far cry from the Jewry of 1776 with its maximum total 
of 2,500 men, women, and children ensconced for the most part in the 
tidewater towns of Newport, New York, Philadelphia, Charleston, and 
Savannah. 

Like their neighbors, this miniscule American Jewry of the 1770's 
was not happy with the new fiscal and political policies Great Britain 
was formulating for her empire. With the French driven out of North 
America after the Seven Years' War, the colonists were expected to 
carry their share of the burden by defraying part of the expense of the 
long, hard conflict. To achieve this end, imperial controls were tightened; 
the new empire was to be much more closely integrated. The American 
people reacted to these pressures in the mid-1 760's by signing nonim- 
portation and nonconsumption agreements, boycotting English goods 
and industry. Since the menace of the French had been removed, the 
colonists no longer needed the mother country and moved toward 
autonomy. Taking advantage of the emergent national consciousness 
which had been shaping itself (or almost a generation, the extremists 
pushed for independence and began piling up military supplies. In the 
attempt to anticipate an uprising, the Bri'.ish marched on Lexington and 
Concord in April, 1775, and the war was on. 



H 



Loyalists 

The overwhelming majority of Americans were not happy about the 
thought of war that spring and summer of 1775. Even after the 
Battle of Bunker Hill, the Continental Congress hoped to evade a full- 
scale struggle and ordered a fast day in July. There is reason to believe 
that the Jews assembled in their chapels all the way from Newport to 
Savannah and prayed devoutly for peace. Out on the Pennsylvania fron- 
tier, in the growing village of Northumberland, Mrs. Aaron Levy and 
her nephew attended a makeshift Presbyterian service and prayed with 
their neighbors for the cessation of hostilities. But this war, too, was 
irrepressible, and Jews, like all others, had to take a stand. 

In determining their loyalties, Jews did not differ from their fellow- 
Americans. Some were Loyalists (Tories) ; others were Whigs; in between 
were those who swung from side to side as need and circumstances 
dictated. No one will ever know with any exactitude where the American 
people and the Jews among them stood in those sad days. Even families 
split — there were Gomezes, Frankses, and Hayses in both camps. This 
was a civil war. In the larger towns, some Jews too poor even to go into 
exile and hoping to keep their little shops open accepted the authority 
of the British crown. Some of the rich and powerful, too — Jews like the 
Franks clan, army purveyors — remained loyal to the crown. The Loyalists 
were grateful for the economic security of the empire; they resented its 
expanding fiscal demands and bureaucratic controls, but they knew that 
as businessmen and as Jews they were more happily situated than any 
other Jewry in the whole world. It is true that Jews here were politically 
disabled, but this could be expected to change in itme; rebellion and 
violence were not the answer. Some of these Loyalists were driven into 
exile. Devoted to a Great Britain that had been so good to them, they 
sacrificed their estates and even their lives. Isaac Hart, the cultured New- 
port merchant shipper who had fled to Long Island, was bayonetted and 
clubbed to death by patriotic Whigs. 



35 



Neutrals and Whigs 

Because most Jews were in commerce, supporting themselves as petty 
shopkeepers, they were rather conservative. The thought of revolu- 
tion and secession frightened them. They had a great deal to lose. They, 
too, grumbled at the Stamp Act and the import duties, but they were not 
willing to go to war to decide whether the colonies were to be part of a 
loosely federated or a well integrated empire. In order to survive, these 
individuals did what they had to do. These are the men who in their 
perplexity halted between two opinions. The humble Jewish business- 
man Philip Moses was typical of this group. He soldiered with the 
Charleston militia, but when the city was taken by the British he, like 
most of his Christian and Jewish neighbors, swore allegiance to the 
English ; his only other choice would have been to leave town — which 
later, indeed, he did, quitting Charleston for Whiggish Philadelphia. 
A number of Jews certainly lived and shifted about in the twilight zone 
between Whiggism and Loyalism, for there were probably as many 
kinds of Whigs and Loyalists as there were Jews. 

Whether successful or not, the American Jews were primarily business- 
men, literate and intelligent. In agrarian America they were nearly all 
part of a respected middle class, though politically they were second-class 
citizens denied the vote in some colonies and forbidden office in all the 
colonies. The political disabilities which they had to endure disturbed and 
humiliated them. They were fully aware that — potentially at least — 
political discrimination went hand in hand with economic disadvantages 
and social prejudice. All this they felt keenly. A growing number were 
native Americans, children of the 1760's, the decade of protest. Young 
Jacob Mordecai typified the new generation. In 1774, at the age of 
twelve, this young patriot, armed and clad in a hunting shirt, joined a 



56 









X 





HJtniieb J£>{a.ic& -4£>eualc 

January 7, 1975 



Weitz 

Circle - Apt. C 
forth Carolina 28401 



very much for the kind invitation to participate 
anniversary of the oldest Jewish congregation in 



i certainly enjoy being with you for this event, but 
schedule will not permit me to do so. I have already 
thing for that weekend in May. 



est wishes and warmest regards. 



t*^ 



IIStnHeb ^talro^enole 



October 2«, 1975 



Rabbi Martin M. Weitz 

Temple of Israel 

1 South Fourth Street 

Wilmington, North Carolina 28401 

Dear Dr. Weitz: 

I know that it is a source of pride for all 
residents of Wilmington that the Temple of Israel, 
the oldest Jewish congregation in the State of North 
Carolina, will shortly observe its 100th anniversary 

This is a meaningful occasion not only for 
the Temple of Israel, but for the people of North 
Carolina; and 1 would like to take this opportunity 
to express to you and your congregation my sincere; 
wishes for your continued success in promoting the 
great Judeo-Christian tradition among the citizens 
of our state. It is a tradition that has been badly 
weakened in our own time; but with a spiritual re- 
birth of the American people and the kind of dedica- 
tion that the Temple of Israel has displayed, this 
tradition will continue to exercise a dominant influei 
in our daily affairs. 



end my genuine thanks to you and your 
l for being the fine citizens that you ar 



- e cK r « i 3Ca_:' ,,, E!!' ,T ' 



rJ u 



•O' 






Congress of tfje ©niteb States 

©oiise of Kcpregentatiuts 
raastinjton, B.C. 20515 



f Isr 

on, :i 


lei 

:. 23 40] 




bi We 


Ltz: 




xtend 

n the 


my sincerest congratulati 
occasion of their 100th a 


^ns to Temple of 
iniversary . 


ored 
st Je 

rivil 


to represent in the United 
rfish community in the Stat 
sged to note your long his 


States Congress 
? of North Carolin 
Lory to our state. 


Hebre 


zh and every one of you in 
rf prayer: 

The Lord bless thee, 
and keep thee; 

The Lord make his face 

to shine upon thee. 
And be gracious unto the 


the congregation 




The Lord lift up his 

countenance upon the 
And give thee peace. 






^ 



.fcUjtw 




Wgtflit 



February 6, 1976 



Rabbi Martin M. Weitz 
Temple of Israel 
Wilmington, North Carolina 

Dear Rabbi Weitz; 

We have great admiration for those who founded the Temple of 
Israel, the first Jewish congregation in North Carolina. Their 
vision and wisdom has been very beneficial to our City. In behalf 
of the citizens of the City of Wilmington, I extend our congratula- 
tions to the Temple of Israel for 100 years of service to its 
congregation and the City of Wilmington. 

In looking through the pages of history in Wilmington, we find 
many lasting contributions made by the members of your congregation 
to our City throughout these 100 ya^rs. Many of these contributions 
will continue throughout our future. 



Inly blends 



With best wishes, I 



j&Jti 



Jerusalem, 2 March 1976 



Dr. Martin M* Veitz 
1220 Colunbu* Circle - Apt 
Wilmington, N. Car. 28401 
U.SJL. 



Dnr Dr. Vaitsi 



President Katzir has asked me to explain how ouch 
he regrets that the inordinate burden of official dutiee in recent weeks 
has delayed his attention to other — and certainly not unioportant - 
■attera. One such was the autographing of this photograph for you* It is 
accompanied by his pleasant memories of your visit and by best wishes to 
you and your wife. Still another was the matter of greetings to your 
congregation, in celebration of its hundredth anniversary. 

The President hopes, Dr. Weltz, that you will convey 
his warm congratulations to the eteaberahip of Temple of Israel. A century 
of Jovian devotion in the sane congregation ia no email matter at all, 
particularly if that congregation was established in the New World t in 
the midst of an area with a relatively small Jewish population. The 
President trusts that Temple of Israel *s second century will find its 
members living peaceful and creative livea in a world that realizes 
humility *• nobler aims. Above all, for them and all Jews, he dreams of a 



17 Shevnt 5756 

January 11, 1076 



'labhi Dr. Ha 



r,.. 



of Ia 



*>T*A 



" 5< 'GLLi^ 9?5 



HEBREW UNION COLLEGE-JEWISH INSTITUTE OF RELIGION 

Cincinnati - New York • Los Angeles • Jerusalem 



January 30, 1976 



Temple of Israel 
Fourth and Market Str 
Wilmington, North Car 



Dear Membe 



Df Temple of Is 



It gives me great pleasure to express my heartfelt con- 
gratulations to all of you of the Temple of Israel on 
the occasion of the 100th anniversary of your congrega- 
tion. Your Temple's history marks a proud and venerable 
tradition. Your city had the earliest Jewish settlement 
of significance in all of North Carolina, and the Jews 
who founded your Temple, their successors who maintained 
it, and the rabbis who served it, could not but be aware 
of the role Jews have played in the early history of your 
state and in the American Revolution. 

You are indeed justified in linking your Centennial and 
the Bicentennial of our country and to think of your 
mission as one "For Faith and Freedom." 

Our College-Institute, the alma mater of most of your 
rabbis, is also celebrating its Centennial this year. 
Thus, we join you in mutual rejoicing: may the next 
century be a fruitful and happy one for you and for us 
find fflf all of Israel. 



c/o 1220 Coluibus Circle, Apt. C 
li'ilinington, North Carolina 28401 
United States of America 



On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the founding 
of the Congregation of the Temple of Israel, I am sending 
you and the members of your congregation i*y very best wishes 
iieing the oldest Jewish congregation in the State of North 
Carolina, the state which stands for "Faith and Freedom," 
you have the noble task of contributing to the strengthening 
of our tradition. I know you will do everything to continue 
your efforts in building the Congregation and in furthering 
its ties with the Strte of Israel in .-.onorol, and with 
Jerusalem in particular. I-.ay you be blessed in your vork, 
e fruits of your eflorts. 



and may you 
Many happy 



of the day. 




ENTRAL CONFEREh 



Temple of Israel 
460 Alpine Drive 
Wilmington, Norch CaroLi 



I rejoice with Temple of Isra 
tion and I send the hearty fe 
American Rabbis to you all. 

I have happy memories of my v 
among you for my JUussociat 
an" honorary Tar-Hee^* May Te: 



at, Philadelphia, Penna . , 19123 



World Union 

for Progressive Judaism 



March 10, 1976 



Temple of Israel 
460 Alpine Drive 
Wilmington, North Car 

Dear Friends: 



While the Psalmist 
in Thy sight are but as 



"A thousand years 
srday when It Is 
past," In the lives of men and women one hundred 
years Is no mean achievement. As President of 
the World Union for Progressive Judaism, I salute 
you and your Rabbi, my long-time friend and col- 
league, as you celebrate your 100th Birthday. 

A century of service to a community must 
stir the memories and challenge the dreams and 
hopes of a dedicated constituency. May you 
begin your second century with high hopes and 
commitment . 

What you do, redounds not only to your credit 
but to our national and worldwide Movement, which 
brings to life the treasured traditions of the 
past and harmonizes them with time and place In 
every generation. 

"Be strong and of good courage.'" 

Faithfully, 



>d*»^fi.itL. 



• 88 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK 10021 • (212) 249- 



Qfteate/t Cant 



Temple of I 
South Pourt 
Wilmiagto 



GREETINGS 

at the cele 

anniversary 

We look 
whoae spin 
an inspirat 
in the Caro 

Strengthen 
Hake visibl 
Let Torah 



HI! 



jr beloved 


nation 


nt 




0- 




r\cfL-dc<L 


4*2- 


PRESIDENT 


CHAIRMAN 




boys' military company which escorted the delegates to the Continental 
Congress as they rode into Philadelphia. 

Not being of English stock, the Jews, most of them natives of Central 
Europe, often believed that they owed the English little. To be sure, their 
lot had fallen in pleasant places; they did enjoy many liberties and 
opportunities in British America, but these only whetted their appetite 
for more. As Whigs they were not satisfied with half a measure of free- 
dom ; they wanted it full and whole. Unlike the Loyalists, they were not 
willing to wait. They were not gradualists. The Whigs, nearly always a 
minority group, were eager to embrace these responsible, substantial, 
middle-class reinforcements. Many of the Jewish Whigs were ardent 
patriots ; they left their shops, homes, businesses, and warehouses in New 
York, Newport, Savannah, and Charleston, preferring exile to life under 
British rule. Gershom Seixas, the minister of New York's Remnant of 
Israel (Shearith Israel), packed up the Torahs and moved with many of 
his elite to Connecticut. 

The Jews in colonial America never constituted more than one-tenth 
of 1 percent of the population ; yet in Georgia it was a Jew who took the 
lead in establishing the first "American" government in that province. 
Mordecai Sheftall was a native whose father had come to Savannah 
shortly after the arrival of Oglethorpe himself. In the late summer of 
1774, Sheftall became the head of the Parochial Committee of Christ 
Church Parish; he assumed the leadership of the new de facto county 
government implementing the anti-British boycott-resolutions of the 
Continental Congress. When the war moved into an active phase, he 
became the commissary general for Georgia's militia and Continental 
troops. Knowing the part he had played, the British, when they took 
Savannah in December, 1778, imprisoned him for about a year and a 
half before allowing him co return to his family. Sir James Wright, the 
British governor, was well aware that Sheftall was one of the "liberty" 
leaders. Reporting back home to his superior in London, the governor 
suggested that the Georgia Jews not be allowed to return to the province 
and that Jewish newcomers be entirely excluded: 

For these people, my lord, were found to a man to have heen violent 
rebels and persecutors of the king's loyal subjects. And however this 
law may appear at first sight, be assured, my lord, that the times 
require these exertions, and without which the loyal subjects can have 
no peace in the province or security in this province. 



37 



Soldiers 

Mordecai Sheftall's career during the Revolution was hardly 
typical. He was the highest ranking Jew in the Revolutionary 
forces, for his office carried the titular grade of colonel. Two other Con- 
tinentals became lieutenant colonels — quite an achievement when it is 
borne in mind that no one could hold a military office in the British- 
American colonies unless he took a Christian oath. David Salisbury Franks 
was an American who had moved to Canada, the fourteenth colony. When 
General Richard Montgomery took Montreal from the English, the 
civilian Franks lent the troops money, sold them supplies, and advanced 
them funds when there was not a farthing in the military chest. Looked 
upon by the British as one of the principal leaders of sedition, Franks 
had to flee with the American forces when they were driven out. He 
joined them as a volunteer, remained in the service throughout the war, 
and rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel. 

An even more enthusiastic patriot was Franks's fellow Pennsylvanian 
Solomon Bush, who became a kinsmen of Mordecai Sheftall when Shef- 
tall's son Moses married Bush's sister Nelly. Young Solomon Bush joined 
the army in the early days because he wanted to "revenge the rongs of 
my injured country." He soon rose to the rank of deputy adjutant general 
of the state militia. Severely wounded in a battle near Philadelphia, he 
was carried to his father's home till betrayed to the British by a "vilain." 
The Enejish were kind enough to parole the wounded officer, but while 
receiving medical treatment from them, he discovered that a spy had 
infiltrated Washington's headquarters. Bush lost as little time as he 
could in alerting the Whigs. 

Isaac Franks, a Whig member of this widespread Anglo-American 
clan, became a lieutenant colonel in the Pennsylvania militia, but that 
was after the war. In 1776, at the age of seventeen he enlisted in a regi- 
ment of volunteers, arming and equipping himself at his own expense. 
After the Battle of Long Island, when his company retreated to New 
York City, he was captured by the British and thrown into prison. Three 
months later this daring youngster escaped in the dead of winter, crossing 
the Hudson in a leaky skiff with only one paddle. Arriving on the Jersey 
shore, he rejoined the American forces and remained in the service until 
1782. For most of these years he was a forage master and a noncommis- 
sioned quartermaster in and about West Point. The highest rank he 
reached during the Revolution was that of ensign in a Massachusetts 



sx 



regiment. After six years of practically continuous service with the Con- 
tinentals, this veteran retired at the ripe age of twenty-three and went into 
business in Philadelphia. Achieving a modest degree of success, he bought 
the Deshler House in Germantown. During the war this attractive home 
had served the British briefly as army headquarters; in 1793, during the 
yellow fever epidemic, Franks rented the place furnished to President 
Washington. Atter the scourge had abated and the President had vacated 
the mansion, Washington could not fail to notice as he scrutinized his 
bill that Ensign Franks had charged him for six missing items: one flat- 
iron, one large fork, and four platters. 

How many Jews served in the militia and in the Continental line? 
That will never be known, no matter how carefully one checks the records 
in the National Archives. Combing the lists will indeed bring to light 
the names of Cohens, Levis, Moseses, and Solomonses. Some of these 
men were born Christians; Joseph Smith was not. After enlisting in the 
Third Maryland Regiment at the age of twenty-three. Smith saw service 
in Pennsylvania, the Jerseys, and the South. Wounded at Camden. South 
Carolina, in 1780, he fell into British hands and remained a prisoner 
until he returned home to Baltimore. In signing the company payroll, he 
made his mark. When he applied for a pension after the war. it developed 
that Smith's real name was Elias Pollock; he could write, but the only 
script he employed was the Hebrew. Why had he concealed his name? 
He may well have been a runaway debtor seeking to escape imprisonment; 
he may have been an indentured servant or a Maryland "transport," a 
criminal serving out his term in the colonies. Or the simple answer may 
be that, fearing prejudice, he adopted the innocuous Anglo-Saxon 
"Smith" to conceal his Jewish origin. 

The Jewish historian Barnett A. Elzas documented the presence in 
South Carolina of at least thirty-four Jewish Revolutionary War veterans, 
among them a few Georgia refugees. Most of these Jews served under 
Captain Richard Lushington, whose outfit was known — rather erron- 
eously — as the "Jew Company." The Jews who served in his command 
did not constitute a majority, but since most of them were King Street 
shopkeepers, all bunched together, they had been conscripted as a group. 
They gave a good account of themselves. One of the captain's men was 
Jacob I. Cohen, who fought with his comrades at the Battle of Beaufort. 
Lushington certified in 1779 that Cohen had "in every respect conducted 
himself as a good soldier and man of courage." Five years later, as a 
member of the Richmond firm of Cohen & Isaacs, Cohen hired a frontiers- 



V) 



man named Daniel Boone to survey his lands on the Licking River in 
distant Kentucky. 

The most distinguished Jewish Carolinian of Revolutionary days was 
Francis Salvador, a member of one of the richest Jewish families in 
England. After Joseph Salvador, Francis' uncle and father-in-law, had 
lost his money, he repaid his nephew to whom he was indebted by ceding 
to him large tracts in the Carolina hinterland. They were known as the 
"Jews' Lands." When young Francis lost his own fortune, he left his 
London family behind and, in 1773 and 1774, carved out a large planta- 
tion for himself in South Carolina's Ninety Six District. Salvador soon 
emerged as a Whig leader. It may not be difficult to guess what motivated 
him. Twenty years earlier his uncle, then one of the great financiers of 
the empire, had helped sponsor a Jewish Naturalization Act. After 
passing, it had been speedily scuttled by Parliament in a wave of anti- 
Jewish hostility and scurrility. Uncle Joseph Salvador had been hooted 
out of a London theater. Who can doubt that Francis Salvador, cultured 
and wea'thy, never forgot that back in London he was only a second-class 
citizen ? Because of his background, he was immediately accepted in good 
Carolinian society and was invited to sit in the rebel provincial congresses 
and in the first general assembly of the new state of South Carolina. 
Salvador was the first unconverted Jew to serve in an American legisla- 
ture. By 1776, this attractive young man had become a member of a 
number of important committees and thus a notable political figure. 

When the British army and navy struck at the east coast in 1776, and 
their allies, the Indians and Tories, moved in to massacre the settlers and 
farmers on the western frontier, Salvador rode twenty-eight miles to 
rouse the militia. On the night of July 31 -August 1, the punitive expedi- 
tion which he had joined was ambushed. Salvador fell, shot and scalped 
by the Indians. He may have been the first Jew to die in defense of the 
new United States. Today in Charleston's City Hall Park there is a plaque 
dedicated to his memory: 

Born an aristocrat he became a democrat, 

An Englishman he cast his lot with America; 

True to his ancient faith he gave his life 

For new hopes of human liberty and understanding. 



Hi 



Commerce 

Though not a soldier, still another member of the Franks clan ren- 
dered a great service to the new Continental Army. In 1776, as 
Washington was preparing in Boston to move against New York, the 
general requested Congress to send him $250,000 in hard coin to pay off 
the militia whose term of service had expired. Washington's problem 
was not to raise the money, but to transport it to Boston past hostile Tories. 
Shipping the specie by boat and evading the British sea patrol was too 
hazardous. It was at this juncture that John Hancock called upon "three 
gentlemen of character" — among them, Moses Franks — to cart the money 
secretly to Washington's headquarters. It took them two weeks to reach 
Boston, unfortunately too late to meet the needs of the militia, but the 
cash was used to satisfy the regulars. The total expense incurred in this 
trek north amounted to $238. 

The fact that 100 or more American Jews may have served in the 
armed forces is of no great historic significance. Their commercial activi- 
ties were far more important in an agrarian economy where industry and 
manufacturing were minimal and the coasts were blockaded by the 
powerful British fleet. The farmers and townspeople had to have yard 
goods and tea; it was imperative that the soldiers be supplied with uni- 
forms, blankets, and shoes. One way to relieve the shortage was to arm 
merchant ships and send them out as privateers to prey on enemy com- 
merce. This Jews did, arming small ships heavily and packing them with 
large, tough crews who scoured the seas for valuable British cargoes. 

Many an American who joined or financed a privateer dreamt of strik- 
ing it rich. Impoverished Mordecai Sheftall decided to try his luck. After 
his imprisonment and exile from British-occupied Georgia, he determined 
on a bold stroke to recoup his losses. In one way or another he managed 
to secure hold of a twenty-ton sloop, the Hetty, sold shares in her to 
secure working capital, loaded her with thirty men including a Negro 
slave, and armed her with eight guns, tomahawks, blunderbusses, and 
boarding pikes. Then he set sail on what was to be a most inglorious 
adventure. The English captured the Hetty and scuttled her, but the 
persistent Sheftall raised and reoutfitted the vessel. He tried his luck once 
more, but never struck it rich; indeed, it is questionable whether any of 
the Jewish merchants of that day made any "big money" lying in wait 
for British merchantmen. 

After a fashion, privateering was a form of blockade-running. Many 



41 



American ships got through the English naval harrier, for the enemy 
could not guard every cove and inlet of the long coast. Certainly one of 
the most daring of the blockade-runners was the firm of Isaac Moses & 
Co. Its three partners Isaac Moses, Samuel Myers, and Moses Myers had 
an Amsterdam buying office which shipped their goods to Dutch St. 
Eustatius in the Caribbean. From there the company's ships made the run 
to an American port, trusting to rate that they could slip past the cordon 
set up by the English cruisers. Isaac Moses and his associates were great 
Whigs. Shortly after the War broke out in 1775, when the Americans set 
out to conquer Canada, the three partners voluntarily offered the Congress 
$20,000 in hard currency in exchange for Continental paper which — as 
they might have foreseen — ultimately proved worthless. If it was any 
consolation, they received the grateful thanks of John Hancock for their 
generous gift. 

Isaac Moses & Company operated on a large scale; Jonas Phillips, of 
Philadelphia, was not so ambitious. One of Phillips' blockade-running 
letters, written in July, 1776, has been preserved. It was dispatched via 
St. Eustatius to an Amsterdam kinsman, a prominent Jewish merchant in 
that city. Enclosed in the letter was a broadside copy of the Declaration 
of Independence which had just been published by the Americans. Phil- 
lips did not expatiate on the revolt, merely remarking laconically that the 
Americans had 1 00,000 soldiers, the British 25,000 and a fleet. What was 
going to happen ? Only God knew, but before the war was over England 
would be bankrupt. In an appendix to the letter, Phillips got down to 
business, asking for cloth, apparel, notions, and medicines. The letter 
was written in Yiddish, no doubt with the expectation that if the British 
intercepted it, they would let it go by because they could not read it. That 
was a vain hope, for the ship, which sailed from St. Eustatius, was taken, 
the letter was impounded, and just because the English could not read it, 
they concluded that it was in code. It rests today in the English Public 
Records Office in Chancery Lane. 

Since the quartermaster department of the Revolutionary armed forces 
was primitive and inadequate, the government turned to civilian purveyors 
tor badly needed supplies. Many, if not most, Jewish merchants of that 
day were purveyors on a large or small scale, offering the government 
clothing, gunpowder, and lead. Harassed for lack of funds, the authorities 
took their time before settling accounts; some trusting suppliers were 
never paid at all. One of the merchants who were never reimbursed for 
their advances was Levy Solomons, of Canada, a brother-in-law of the 
ebullient David Salisbury Franks. Solomons, a Whig, served the American 



\2 



troops in Canada in 1775 and 1776, helping them establish hospitals and 
lending them money. When the Americans were forced to retreat, this 
zealous patriot provided the sick and the wounded with transportation 
on their way to the border. The British, knowing where his loyalties lay, 
seized his goods and furniture on July 4, 1776, and threw them into the 
street; his neighbors shunned him and refused him shelter. 

The Jewish businessmen of the period were nothing if not ingenious ; 
there was no supply job that they would not undertake. Exiled to Phila- 
delphia, the New York fur trader Hayman Levy became a garment manu- 
facturer producing breeches and shirts in the local poorhouse. The tailor 
Levy Marks petitioned Congress — unsuccessfully — to give him the job 
of superintending the manufacture of army uniforms. Levy's cousins, 
Barnard and Michael Gratz, turned to anything that offered a profit. They 
exported tobacco from Virginia, outfitted troops, and shipped supplies 
to George Rogers Clark, who was dedicated to the task of driving the 
British out of the western frontier. Michael Gratz's father-in-law, Joseph 
Simon, a Pennsylvania pioneer, manufactured rifles in Lancaster with 
his gunsmith partner, William Henry. Out on the Ohio frontier, one of 
Simon's companies, Simon & Campbell, provided the Indian commis- 
sioners with goods for pacifying the natives. The Gratzes performed the 
same service in New York State, where the Iroquois had to be held in 
check. The Americans could not afford to fight on two fronts: against 
Indians in the back country as well as the English in the East. In short, 
the Jewish importers, wholesalers, and blockade-runners managed — no 
one really knows how — to ferret out goods even in the darkest of days. 
The shopkeepers distributed them. This relatively successful job of keep- 
ing commodities flowing was the real Jewish contribution to the war 
effort. 



Political Gains 

When the war was over, the Jewish Whigs were very proud of 
their party's achievements. Those New Yorkers who had gone 
into exile returned home in late 1783 and sat down to write Governor 
George Clinton a letter: 

Though the [religious] society we belong to is but small when com- 
pared with other religious societies, yet we flatter ourselves that none 
has manifested a more zealous attachment to the sacred cause of 
America in the late war with Great Britain. 



43 



They were happy that they now enjoyed full political equality, for they 
were fully conscious of the fact that theirs was the only state of the 
thirteen where Jews were privileged to hold office. Still unemancipated, 
lews in all the other states waited for the fulfillment of the Great Promise 
made in the Declaration of Independence: "All men arc created equal." 
Finally, in 1786, Virginia began to move when it passed Jefferson's 
Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom. A year later Congress adopted 
the Northwest Ordinance which guaranteed religious and political free- 
dom in the new states to be formed in the future north of the Ohio and 
west of the Alleghenies. When the federal constitution was approved by 
a majority of the states in 1788, the Jews were satisfied: Article VI 
declared categorically that no religious test would ever be required for 
any office under the federal government. 

The adoption of the United States Constitution was one of the most 
important events in the entire history of Diaspora Jewry. There had been 
nothing like it since 212 C.E., when the Emperor Caracalla granted citizen- 
ship to all free men in the Roman empire. American Jewry was the 
modern world's first free Jewry. One can well understand why the Jews 
of Philadelphia joined so gladly in the Federal Parade of July 4, 1788. 
In this, the greatest spectacle that America had yet witnessed, the Christian 
clergy walked arm in arm with "Rabbi" Jacob R. Cohen. When the 
parade was over, the tired but happy Children of Israel clustered around 
a kosher table of their own at Bush Mill to munch crackers, salmon, 
almonds, and raisins. It was a great day; the messiah was just around the 
corner! 

Unfortunately, something delayed him. There were still eleven other 
states which withheld office from Jews. The very summer the Constitution 
was being debated Jonas Phillips wrote to the constituent convention. In 
his letter, the only one sent it asking for religious equality, Phillips 
pointed out to the assembled politicians that the 1776 Pennsylvania 
organic statute contained a Christian test oath. He asked the federal 
convention to take action against it. But of course the federal delegates 
had no authority to alter any state constitution; states' rights were para- 
mount. The eleven laggard commonwealths were slow to honor the 
commitments implicit in their individual bills of rights. It took 100 years 
after New York emancipated its Jews before the last sluggard, New 
Hampshire, permitted Jews and Catholics to serve in a legislative office — - 
in 1S77. 



44 



Haym Salomon 

Phillips was not the only Pennsylvania Jew who deeply resented the 
exclusionary test oath in Section X of the state's constitution. Many 
other Jewish Whigs felt as he did. Among them was the immigrant 
Haym Salomon, who had landed on these shores about the year- 1775. 
Polish-born Salomon, then thirty-five years of age, became almost over 
night an impassioned patriot as he peddled among the American troops 
stationed on New York's northern borders. He was so well-known as an 
ardent Whig that, when the British occupied New York City, they ar- 
rested him and threw him into one of their infamous military prisons. 
He might have perished there had he not been released by the German 
mercenaries who served the British. It is very probable that one of the 
German-Jewish quartermasters who had accompanied the "Hessians" 
induced their general to free and employ him. Salomon went to work 
for them, but operated underground as an American agent inducing 
Hessian officers to resign and helping French and American prisoners to 
escape. Unfortunately, the British finally caught up with him. If he had 
not fled, he would certainly have been executed. He escaped to Philadel- 
phia, leaving behind a wife and an infant child. After some two years of 
struggle, Salomon achieved a degree of affluence. Because of his remark- 
able linguistic skills, he became a financial agent for the consul general 
of France and the treasurer of the French army. By 1781, he was probably 
the best known bill broker in the country, and it was in that capacity that 
Robert Morris, the Superintendent of Finance, employed him to sell the 
bills of friendly governments. Preparing to undertake the Yorktown 
campaign which was to end with the surrender of Cornwallis, the 
Americans needed large sums of money to equip their troops. Salomon's 
job was to serve Morris as an alchemist; he was to transmute paper into 
gold, and this he did. 

Because the delegates to the Continental Congress were often in need, 
they were driven to borrow money to tide them over. In the summer of 
1782, a necessitous delegate from Virginia appealed to Salomon for 
help — and not in vain. "I have for some time past been a pensioner on 
the favor of Haym Salomon, a Jew broker," wrote James Madison to his 
friend Edmund Randolph, and in a later letter he reported how Salomon 
had again rescued him. "The kindness of our little friend in Front Street, 
near the coffee-house, is a fund which will preserve me from extremities, 
but I never resort to it without great mortification, as he obstinately 
rejects all recompense." That same year, as Philadelphia Jewry set out 



45 



to build its first synagogue, Salomon was the most generous contributor. 

It is obvious v/hy a man like Salomon who had risked his life twice 
because of his Whig convictions would feel hurt that his state saw fit to 
treat him as a second-class citizen. As a member of the board of the new 
synagogue, the Hope of Israel, he joined with them and the congrega- 
tion's cantor-minister in 17S3 in a vigorous protest to Pennsylvania's 
authoritative Council of Censors, asking them to remove the offensive 
test oath. The protestors accomplished nothing. Two years later Salomon 
died and lies today in an unmarked grave in the Spruce Street Cemetery. 
Five years after this "Jew broker" was laid to rest, Pennsylvania did 
remove the discriminatory clause. On Wacker Drive in present-day Chi- 
cago there is a monument commemorating the services of Salomon to the 
beloved land of his adoption. General Washington stands tall and erect on 
a pedestal of black marble flanked on his right by Robert Morris, on his 
left by Haym Salomon. The legend underneath runs: 

The government of the United States which gives to bigotry no sanc- 
tion, to persecution no assistance, requires only that they who live under 
its protection should demean themselves as good citizens . . . 

In the spring of that same year Mordecai Sheftall had sat down and 
written a letter to his son Sheftall Sheftall. By that time young Sheftall 
was already a veteran with at least five years of service behind him. He 
was twenty-one years of age. When only sixteen, he had been appointed 
an aide to his father with the title of Assistant Deputy Commissary of 
Issues. When father Mordecai was captured by the British in 1778, 
Sheftall Sheftall was also imprisoned. In 1781, some time after his 
release, the young commissary was charged by the United States govern- 
ment with the important task of bringing relief to General William 
Moultrie and his fellow-prisoners in Charleston. Sheftall was the flag- 
master of the flag of truce sloop Carolina Vackett. He completed the 
mission successfully. Charleston was Sheftall Sheftall's second home. As 
the megalopolis of the American South, it was always attractive to 
Mordecai 's son; it was a market center and, what was even more important, 
could boast a number of Jewish girls. In April, 1783, while on one of 
his trips to the big city, Sheftall received a letter from his father telling 
him that the war was over : 

Every real well wisher to his country must feel him self happy to have 
lived to see this longe and bloody contest brot to so happy an issue. 
More especially as we have obetained our independence . . . An entier 
new scene will open it self, and we have the world to begin againe. 



■46 



'NOW THESE ARE THE NAMES" . . .(Sh'moth) 



The second Book of Moses, known by the Hebrew Word, Shemoth, 
opens with "These are the Names!" Be this then, our title for "Book 
Two" of our Temple of Israel Bibilog, for "now these are the names" and 
"ye shall take a count of the sum of the children of Israel — After their 
numbers." Here then follow names and numbers — a Directory, and 
other records of value not alone for the days but for the years. 




INTERIOR OF TEMPLE... Circa 1910 



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53 



"AND THE LORD CALLED" . . . (Vayikrah) 

Book Three of the Book of Life thus begins; and so all life doth harken 
unto an endless end. .."and the Lord called". ..Here then, printed in 
preserving pages even as they are engraved in deserving hearts, are names 
of dear ones, as they are inscribed in our Shrine, accompanied by words of 
memory and Psalms of solace, preservative of the life-force of Israel. ..so we 
may recall the departed for blessing. 



LIFE AND DEATH IN A SINGLE BREATH . . . 

A Psalm for Life . . . Psalm 23 

The Lord is my Shepherd, I shall not want. He maketh me to lie down 
in green pastures; He leadeth me beside still waters. He restoreth my soul; 
He guideth me in straight paths for His name's sake. Yea, though I walk 
through the valley of the shadow of death I shall fear no evil, for Thou art 
with me; Thy rod and Thy staff, they comfort me. Thou preparest a table 
before me in the presence of mine enemies; Thou anointest my head with oil; 
my cup runneth over. Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days 
of my life, and I shall dwell in the house of the Lord forever. . . 



"And a Poem for Death . . . 

It is in the appointed pattern of life, that the Spring which buds in exalted 
beauty must leave the Summer of its blossoming when Autumn's mature 
glory graciously goes down to the grave of Winter. May those who mourn 
the passing of their departed ones ever keep their memory green with the 
divine tenderness of human love and honor them by erecting their own lives 
as monuments to their memory. May every word and every deed bespeak 
the sentiments ever cherished. May the words our lips would utter be made 
real in the doings of our hands. Let us take comfort together in that the 
handiwork of the bereaved be completed with us, the memory of their lives 
be poetry for us. Let*us then perceive that the going of a dear one is as a 
song that is sung, a flower that is faded, a sun that is set, a day that is done . . . 
as we sense God in the twin-mysteries of BREATH AND "DEATH" . . . 



"THE ROLL CALL UP YONDER" 

"And the Lord called" . . . the living ever remember the dead — and here 
the names of the living "stand up" for the names of the departed; "deep calleth 
unto deep" to recall names for blessing and to relay their living spirit. Those 
whose anniversaries are cited are included • • • 




54 



WE REMEMBER 




OUR DEPARTED... 



YARHRZEITS {Chronologically) 

January 

Marcus W. Jacobi 3rd 

Rosalie Jacobi 3rd 

Henry C. Bear 4th 

Herman Turkel 5th 

Herman Schafer 5th 

Elizabeth Demelman 8th 

Jennie Gold 14th 

Rosalie Jacobi Newman 14th 

Frederick Rheinstein 16th 

Adolph Goodman 18th 

February 

Joseph N. Jacobi 1st 

Fred D. Bear 4th 

Sarah Platzek 9th 

Bernhard Solomon 13th 

Max Warshauer 14th 

Devora Shrier Kahn 14th 

Soiomon Sternberger 17th 

Blanche Mack 18th 

Leonard Mack 19th 

Stanley Mack 20th 

Goldie Weiner 20th 

Hannah Shrier 20th 

Harriss Newman 22nd 

Louise Teitle 22nd 

Solomon Bear 24th 

March 

Monroe L. Shrier 1st 

Samuel Bear, Jr 3rd 

I. W. Solomon 5th 

Alan Rice 6th 

Jacob David Gold 6th 

Rebecca David 15th 



YARHRZEITS [Alphabetically] 

January 

Henry C. Bear 4th 

Elizabeth Demelman 8th 

Jennie Gold 14th 

Adolph Goodman 18th 

Marcus W. Jacobi 3rd 

Rosalie Jacobi 3rd 

Rosalie Jacobi Newman 14th 

Frederick Rheinstein . '. 1 6th 

Herman Schafer 5th 

Herman Turkel 5th 

February 

Fred D. Bear 4th 

Solomon Bear 24th 

Joseph N. Jacobi 1st 

Devora Shrier Kahn 14th 

Blanche Mack 18th 

Leonard Mack 19th 

Stanley Mack 20th 

Harriss Newman 22nd 

Sarah Platzek 9th 

Hannah Shrier 20th 

Bernhard Solomon 13th 

Solomon Sternberger 17th 

Lousie Teitle 22nd 

Max Warshauer 14th 

Goldie Weiner 20th 

March 

Samuel Bear, Jr 3rd 

Sigmund Bear 27th 

Leopold Bluethenthal 28th 

Rebecca David 15th 

Jacob David Gold 6th 

Alan Rice 6th 



55 



Joseph Schwartz 19th 

Sigmund Bear 27th 

Leopold (Bluethenthal 28th 

Solomon Sternberger 29th 

April 

William Goodman 3rd 

Sophie Liebman 10th 

Jacob Sternberger 1 1th 

Helen Shirley Kornhauser 17th 

Abraham Shrier 18th 

Carolyn Schwab Rice 19th 

Michael George Blakeman 28th 

May 

Harry Philip Berman 1st 

Frances Levite May 12th 

Annie Dannenbaum 18th 

Rebecca B. Sternberger 28th 

Marshall Shrier 31st 

J ' une 

Anna Turkel 6th 

Ida Mendelsohn Blakeman 13th 

Nathan Gold 17th 

Harry Kanter 19th 

July 

Isaac Shrier 4th 

Linda J . Newman 8th 

George Sternberger 9th 

Abram David 1 1th 

Alfred Klaus Rosenthal 12th 

Henrietta Bear 17th 

Fannie Bear Hahn 20th 

Lena Solomon Bear 21st 

Rabbi Karl Rosenthal 23rd 

Esther Mendelsohn 28th 

Alfred Sternberger 28th 

Louis Shrier 3 1st 

August 

Samuel Bear, Sr 2nd 

Harry M. Solomon 4th 

Edward Tanzer 9th 

Isaac Platzek 10th 



Joseph Schwartz 19th 

Monroe L. Shrier 1st 

I. W. Solomon 5th 

Solomon Sternberger 29th 

April 

Michael George Blakeman 28th 

William Goodman 3rd 

Helen Shirley Kornhauser 17th 

Sophie Liebman 10th 

Carolyn Schwab Rice 17th 

Abraham Shrier 18th 

Jacob Sternberger 11th 

May 

Harry Philip Berman 1st 

Annie Dannenbaum 18th 

Frances Levite May 12th 

Marshall Shrier 31st 

Rebecca B. Sternberger 28th 

June 

Ida Mendelsohn Blakeman 13th 

Nathan Gold 17th 

Harry Kanter 19th 

Anna Turkel 6th 

July 

Henrietta Bear 17th 

Lena Solomon Bear 21st 

Abram David 1 1th 

Fannie Bear Hahn 20th 

Esther Mendelsohn 28th 

Linda J . Newman 8th 

Alfred Klaus Rosenthal 12th 

Rabbi Karl Rosenthal 23rd 

Isaac Shrier 4th 

Louis Shrier 31st 

Alfred Sternberger 28th 

George Sternberger 9th 

August 

Barbara Bear 1 1th 

Samuel Bear, Sr 2nd 

Hannah S. Bretzfelder 19th 

Aaron Goldberg 30th 



56 



Barbara Bear 1 1th 

Hannah S. Bretzfelder 19th 

Aaron Goldberg 30th 

September 

Johanna Schloss 4th 

Lemuel F. Demelman 4th 

Samuel N. Bear 6th 

Isaac M. Bear 10th 

Rosa Eclaefer 12th 

Clarence Bear Sternberger .... 13th 

Frank Werner 16th 

Ida L. Solomon 19th 

Gertrude Schwartz 27th 

Julius Earl Sternberger 27th 

Pauline A. Tanzer 30th 

Rabbi Samuel Mendelsohn 30th 

October 

Samuel Zipser 4th 

J . Irving Bear 1 1th 

George S. Rosenthal 14th 

Johanna Bluethenthal 17th 

Gustav Dannenbaum 21st 

Helen B. Jacobi 29th 

November 

Nathaniel Jacobi 5th 

Sidney A. Carroll 6th 

Karolina Goodman 6th 

Abraham Liebman 19th 

Estelle Shrier 23rd 

Rose Kornhauser 29th 

Sigmund Solomon 30th 

December 

Julius Weil 1st 

Betsy Willner Shrier 2nd 

Bernard Goodman 6th 

Rabbi Howard Fineberg 7th 

Lillian Hayman 10th 

Herbert Bluethenthal 18th 

Bertha B. Shrier 22nd 

Solomon Kallman 22nd 

Harry R. Gold 23rd 

Herman Horn 25th 

Amelia L. Solomon 27th 



Isaac Platzek 10th 

Edward Tanzer 9th 

Harry M. Solomon 4th 

September 

Isaac M. Bear 10th 

Samuel N. Bear 6th 

Lemuel F. Demelman 4th 

Rosa Eclaefer 1 2th 

Rabbi Samuel Mendelsohn 30th 

Gertrude Schwartz 27th 

Johanna Schloss 4th 

Ida L. Solomon 19th 

Clarence Bear Sternberger 13th 

Julius Earl Sternberger 27th 

Pauline A. Tanzer 30th 

Frank Weiner 16th 

October 

J . Irving Bear 1 1th 

Johanna Bluethenthal 17th 

Gustav Dannenbuam 21st 

Helen B. Jacobi 29th 

George S. Rosenthal 14th 

Samuel Zipser 4th 

November 

Sidney A. Carroll 6th 

Karolina Goodman 6th 

Nathaniel Jacobi 5th 

Rose Kornhauser 29th 

Abraham Liebman 19th 

Estelle Shrier 23rd 

Sigmund Solomon 30th 

December 

Herbert Bluethenthal 18th 

Rabbi Howard Fineberg 7th 

Harry R. Gold 23rd 

Bernard Goodman 6th 

Lillian Hayman 10th 

Herman Horn 25th 

Solomon Kallman 22nd 

Bertha B. Shrier 22nd 

Betsy Willner Shrier 2nd 

Amelia L. Solomon 27th 

Julius Weil 1st 



57 



MEMORIAL TABLETS 



TEMPLE OF ISRAEL 



Name 

Lena Solomon Bear 
Solomon Bear 
Henreitra Bear 
Samuel Bear, 1 r. 
Abram David 
Rebecca David 
1. cm u el E. Demelman 
Elizabeth Demelman 
William Goodman 
Bernhard Goodman 
Nathaniel Jacobi 
Rosalie Jacobi 
Joseph N. Jacobi 
Frederick Rheinstein 
Sarah Platzer 
Isaac Platzer 
Alexander Liebman 
Samuel Bear Sr. 
Barbara Bear 
Isaac Shrier 
Betsy Willner Shrier 
Fred D. Bear 
Johanna Schloss 
Rabbi S. Mendelsohn 
Sophie Liebman 



Birth 

May 13, 1882 
March 16, 1883 
August 17, 1846 
November 13, 1853 
July 4, 1844 
January 1 , 1849 
September 20, 1859 
April 18, 1826 
February 26, 1843 
November 25, 1845 
January 21, 1828 
July 6, 1836 
July 5, 1870 
November 14, 1841 
January 11, 1823 
November 15, 1821 
October 3, 1836 
January 17, 1837 
July 5, 1847 
March 5, 1841 
March 12, 1850 
July 28, 1888 
July 30, 1861 
March 31, 1850 
August 16, 1834 



Death 

July 21, 1975 
February 24, 1904 
July 17, 1900 
March 3, 1916 
July 11, 1914 
March 15, 1898 
September 4, 1915 
January 8, 1896 
April 3, 1911 
December 6, 1913 
November 5, 1907 
January 3, 1900 
February 1, 1918 
January 16, 1899 
February 9, 1899 
August 10, 1862 
November 19, 1917 
August 2, 1903 
August 11, 1917 
July 4, 1920 
December 2, 1916 
February 4, 1922 
September 4, 1922 
September 30, 1922 
April 10, 1925 



Abram Shrier 
Hannah Shrier 
Isaac M. Bear 
Henry C. Bear 
Leopold Bluethenthal 
Marcus W. Jacobi 
J . Irving Bear 
Hannah Bear Hahn 
Adolph Goodman 
Karolina Goodman 
Johanna Bluethenthal 
Sigmond Bear 
Marshall Shrier 
Sigmund Solomon 
Hannah S. Bretzfelder 
Esther Mendelsohn 
Linda J . Newman 
Louis Shrier 
Bernhard Solomon 
Edward Tanzer 
Pauline A. Tanzer 
Ida L. Solomon 
Gustav Dannenbaum 



February 17, 1838 
March 28, 1846 
September 29, 1872 
October 18, 1878 
September 5, I860 
August 15, 1867 
January 26, 1884 
February 17, 1861 
June 1, 1880 
July 11, 1849 
October 14, 1867 
August 5, 1870 
December 24, 1878 
August 25, 1844 
November 1, 1874 
April 15, 1854 
May 26, 1868 
November 22, 1880 
October 12, 1854 
March 26, 1854 
November 2, 1863 
July 15, 1865 
July 23, 1869 



April 18, 1912 
February 20, 1925 
September 10, 1907 
January 4, 1925 
March 28, 1928 
January 3, 1928 
October 11, 1930 
July 20, 1930 
January 13, 1920 
November 6, 1930 
October 17. 1933 
March 27, 1935 
May 31, 1938 
November 30, 1940 
August 19, 1942 
July 28, 1942 
July 8, 1943 
July 31, 1943 
February 13, 1943 
August 9, 1921 
September 30, 1936 
f ^ptember 19, 1944 
October 21, 1945 



Name 

Samuel N. Bear 
Solomon Sternberger 
I.Jacob Sternberger 
Rebecca B. Sternberger 
Max Warshauer 
Helen B. Jacobi 
Amelia L. Solomon 
Rabbi Karl Rosenthal 
Monroe L. Shrier 
Estelle Shrier 
Harriss Newman 
Julius Weil 
Isaac Weil Solomon 
Clarence B. Sternberger 
Harry M. Solomon 
Rosalie J. Newman 
Solomon Kallman 
Julius Earl Sternberger 
Annie M. Dannenbaum 
Herbert Bluethenthal 
Rabbi Howard L. Fineberg 



Birth 

May 9, 1918 
March 16, 1870 
September 17, 1868 
July 19, 1874 
January 16, 1880 
August 28, 1873 
March 10, 1861 
July 17, 1889 
June 20, 1876 
October 7, 1872 
October 2, 1897 
July 25, 1867 
October 15, 1873 
August 31, 1896 
December 6, 1890 
August 1, 1909 
December 22, 1889 
December 25, 1897 
August 18, 1883 
September 18, 1890 
February 22, 1901 



Death 

September 6, 1946 
March 29, 1947 
April 11, 1911 
May 28, 1950 
February 14, 1949 
October 29, 1950 
December 27, 1951 
July 23, 1952 
March 1, 1953 
November 23, 1954 
February 22, 1954 
December 1, 1955 
March 5, 1958 
September 13, 1961 
August 4, 1962 
January 14, 1964 
December 23, 1965 
September 27, 1966 
May 18, 1968 
December 17, 1971 
December 10, 1972 



Albert R. Berelowitz 
Aaron Goldberg 



July 7, 1909 
August 28, 1892 



June 16, 1973 
August 30, 1975 





80TH BIRTHDAY OF SIMON SOLOMON, 119 S. Lumina Ave. Wrightsville Beach; 
Back row: Ida Solomon, Lee Solomon; Center row: Harry Solomon, Simon Solomon, 
He Solomon; Front row: Helen Solomon, Lilian Solomon. 



59 



"IN THE WILDERNESS OF SINAI" . . . (B'Midbor) 

Verily these words open up on Eook Four of the Bible . . . Serve they not 
as verbal signposts for our contemporary "Wilderness" that we too may sight 
even a "Sinai" somewhere in our midst? Might not we also find Stardust in 
desert sand, capture a vision from Nature's heights and depths, and carve a 
Decalogue or two on Tablets of Stone? . . .And may not our Two Tablets be 

"Religion and Democracy?" Here then are a few, though true, "Decalogues" 
for today, the world's great faiths in great formulae, indications so that we 
find a "Sinai," even in "the wilderness of Sinai," if we but look unto the sky . . . 




A PRAYER 

God of Nations: 

Happy are we who dwell under the flag of America! Here men are free; 
here men are equal; here men are guaranteed inalienable rights; here men, 
respecting difference, learn to live together as brothers. Blessed is this sacred 
heritage of ours! Out of overflowing hearts, we give Thee thanks, O Lord! 

Make us mindful, we pray Thee, of the price paid for this heritage. Our 
forefathers traversed uncharted waters; they endured the hungers and perils 
of the frontiers; thy shed their blood on many battlefields in defense of the 
nation's ideals. The flag we honor is the symbol of their heroic pioneering, 
of their age-old quest for a land of freedom, peace and brotherhood. 

God of our fathers; endow us with the heart of the ioneer and the patriot 
that we of this generation may do our part to preserve this sacred heritage. 
May we guard it with that eternal vigilance which is the price of liberty. May 
we cherish it with a love that kindles into flame in the hour of crisis. 

We know that pillage and carnage have been wrought for the glory of a 
flag, that the earth has been ravaged by flame and fury for love of country. 
Do Thou inspire our patriotism with Thine ancient law and covenant that we 
may measure the greatness of the glory of our nation not by the vastness of 
its domain, nor the surfeit ol its gold, nor the might of its conquests, but by the 
freedom of our people, the sacredness of our rights as men, the equal op- 
portunity and fair play and good-will of our way of life. 

America, our America! Thine, Almighty God, be the grace to bless it! 
Ours be the will to preserve it for our own blessing and the blessing of the 
nations of the earth! 



60 



DECALOGUE OF THE BIBLE: Moses 

1. I am the Lord thy God; thou shalt not have strange Gods before Me. 

2. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain. 

3. Remember that thou keep holy the Sabbath day. 

4. Honor thy father and thy mother. 

5. Thou shalt not kill. 

6. Thou shalt not commit adultery. 

7. Thou shalt not steal. 

8. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor. 

9. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife. 
10. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's goods. 

■ ■ ■ 

DECALOGUE OF THE ART OF PRAYER: Nahmari of Bratzlav 

1. When you cannot pray with proper concentration try your utmost to speak 
the words in a spirit of belief in their truth. 

2. Let your heart hear what your mouth speaks if you wish to offer proper 
prayer. 

3. The prayer of an individual is not heard unless he concentrates upon it, 
but the prayer of the many is heard, even if not all of them are not whole- 
hearted. 

4. Do not ask that God change the laws of nature for you. 

5. Limit your requests for your material needs, but ask all you wish in 
Torah and piety. 

6. Clothe the words of your prayers in grace; namely, pronounce them care- 
fully and with sincerity. Would you number your words and ignore 
their meaning when addressing a superior? 

7. Every word of your prayer is like a rose which you pick from its blessing. 
From them you form new bouquets of blessings, until you have pleated 
a wreath of glory unto the Lord. 

8. Forget everybody and everything during your worship. Forget yourself 
and your needs. Forget the people of whom you have need. Then in 
truth you may worship the Lord. 

9. When you offer prayer, imagine yourself as one who is newly-born; 
without achievements of which to be proud; without high family descent 
to make you arrogant. Forget all dignity and self-esteem. Remember 
only your Maker. 

10. Make every effort to pray from the heart. Even if you do not succeed, 
the effort is precious in the eyes of the Lord. 

■ ■ ■ 

DECALOGUE FOR THE INDIVIDUAL: Elbert Hubbard 

Thou shalt think well of thyself and well of thy neighbor. 

2. Thou shalt add to the health, wealth, and happiness of the world. 

3. Thou shalt be on good terms with sunshine, fresh air, and water. 

4. Thou shalt get eight hours sleep a day. 

5. Thou shalt eat moderately, and exercise every day in the open air. 
Thou shalt love the memory of thy mother, and be true to the friends that 
have done so much for thee. 
Thou shalt recognize the divinity in all men. 
Thou shalt remember the week-day to keep it holy. 

Thou shalt remember that thee can only help thine by helping other 
people, and that to injure another is to injure thyself, and that to love and 
benefit others is to live long and well. 

10. Thou shalt love the stars, the ocean, the forest, and reverence all living 
things, recognizing that the source of life is one. 



61 



TEN COMMANDMENTS FOR PARENTS 



PAUL M. PITMAN 



1. Thou shalt love thy child with all thy heart, with all thy soul, with all thy 
strength but wisely, with all thy mind. 

2. Thou shalt think of thy child, not as something belonging to thee, but as 
a person. 

3. Thou shalt regard his respect and love not as something to be demanded, 
but something worth earning. 

4. Every time thou art out of patience with thy child's immaturity and blun- 
dering, thou shalt call to mind some of the childish adventures and mis- 
takes which attended thine own coming of age. 

5. Remember that it is thy child's privilege to make a hero out of thee, and 
take thy thought to be a proper one. 

6. Remember also that thy example is more eloquent than thy fault-finding 
and moralizing. 

7. Thou shalt strive to be a sign-post on the highway of life rather than a rut 
out of which the wheel cannot turn. 

8. Thou shalt teach thy child to stand on his own feet and fight his own 
battles. 

9. Thou shalt help thy child to see beauty, to practice kindness, to love truth, 
and to live in friendship. 

10. Thou shalt make of the place wherein thou dwellest a real home — a haven 
of happiness for thyself, for thy children and for thy children's friends. 



DECALOGUE FOR THE FAMILY: 

Author Unknown 



Thou shalt not worship in different churches, nor neglect to erect a family 
altar for home devotions. 

Thou shalt not be a matrimonial illiterate, but assure a successful mating 
life by studying a good textbook on the subject. 
Thou shalt not be selfish about leisure time. 

Remember to keep out of debt, sharing thy goods with each other. 
Honor thy mate, publicly, and privately, by affirming the other's accom- 
plishments. 

Thou shalt not resort to deception, being fair in all circumstances. 
Thou shalt observe all laws of health and beauty in body, mind and soul. 
Thou shalt create a mutual perception of activity, daily arousing the 
other's pleasurable curiosity. 

Thou shalt neither nag nor criticize, being as courteous to each other as 
thout art to friends. 
Thou shalt keep each other at the center cf interest in objective planning. 



62 



TEN REASONS FOR THE TEMPLE 

1. The Temple is the heart of Jewish life. The continuity of. Israel aepends up- 
on its effectiveness. 

2. It provides religious sustenance by interpreting our traditions and our 
history. 

3. It ministers to the moral and spiritual welfare of the family and community. 

4. It provides instruction for children in its Religious School. 

5. It provides adult education through its many programs. 

6. It is a civic institution for the members of our faith. 

7. It is a social organization through which life-long friendships can be 
formed. 

8. It provides a cultural background against which modern problems are 
viewed in perspective. 

9. It conveys the message of Judaism to the world. 

10. In its affiliated organizations — it aims to reach all in a family. 

BBS 

DECALOGUE; BROTHERHOOD 

WALTER vV. VAN KIR?: 

1. I will respect all men and women regardless of their race or religion. 

2. I will protect and defend my neighbor and my neighbor's children against 
the ravages of racial or religious bigotry. 

3. I will exemplify in my own life the spirit of good-will and understanding. 

4. I will challenge the philosophy of racial superiority by whomsoever it may 
be proclaimed, whether by kings, dictators, or demagogues. 

5. I will not be misled by the lying propagandists of those who seek to set 
race against race or nation against nation. 

6. I will refuse to support any organization that has for its purpose the spread- 
ing of anti-Semitism, anti-Catholicism, or anti-Protestantism. 

7. I will establish comradeship with all those who seek to exalt the spirit of 
love and reconciliation throughout the world. 

8. I will attribute to those who differ from me the same degree of sincerity that 
I claim for myself. 

9. I will uphold the civil rights and religious liberties of all citizens and groups 
whether I agree with them or not. 

10. I will do more than live and let live; I will live and help live. 

■ ■ ■ 

DECALOGUE OF DEMOCRACY 

MARTIN M. WEITZ 

1. Love thy country and keep it a land of freedom. 

2. Thou shalt not bow down before dictators, nor serve politicals idols — for 
their iniquity is until the third and fourth generation. 

3. Thou shalt not take the name of the Constitution and Supreme Court in 
vain to hide thy selfish motives. 

4. Remember the election day .to keep it holy; thou, thy son, thy daughter, 
thy man-servant, thy maid-servant, shall refrain from labor but not from 
voting on this day. 

5. Honor thy "father" — right to believe — and "mother" — right to ballot — so 
that thy days may be long in the Republic in which thou livest. 

6. Thou shalt not kill — Freedom, Justice, Peace — any ideal. 

7. Thou shalt not commit political adultery, or flirt with dictatorships. 

8. Thou shalt not steal length of liberty's life nor bread from the hungry by 
thy indifference. 

9. Thou shalt not bear false witness against Democracy nor slander thy 
neighbor in the name of patriotism. 

10. Thou shalt not covet any form of government, its powers, and it troubles. 



63 



ALL MEN OF WORLD ARE TRULY BROTHERS! 

The fact that men are brothers and should live as such has been recognized 
in the religions of many lands and many ages. 

Selwyn Gurney Champion, an English physician, has recorded a study of 
the world's major faiths in a book, "The Eleven Religions," published by E. P. 
Dutton & Co. It contains 4,890 quotations. 

We cite just 10 of the quotations which show that the Golden Rule is a 
teaching of 10 of the 11 religions. Here they are, in the alphabetical order of the 
religions: 

1. "BUDDHISM — "Hurt not others with that which pains yourself." 

2. CHRISTIANITY — "All things whatsoever you would that men should 
do to you, do ye even so to them, for this is the law and the prophets." 

3. CONFUCIANISM— "Is there any one maxim that ought to be acted 
upon throughout one's v/hole life? Surely the maxim of loving kindness 
is such — do not unto others what you would not they should do unto 
you." 

4. HEBRAISM or JUDAISM— "What is hurtful to yourself do not to your 
fellow man. That is the whole of the Torah and the remainder is but 
commentary." 

5. HINDUISM — "This is he sum of duty: do naught to others which if 
done to thee would cause thee pain." 

6. ISLAM or MOHAMMEDANISM— "No one of you is a believer until he 
he loves for his brother what he loves for himself." 

7. JAINISM — "In happiness and suffering, in joy and grief, we should re- 
gard all creatures as we regard our own self, and therefore should re- 
frain from inflicting upon others such injury as would appear undesir- 
able to us if inflicted upon ourselves." 

9. TAOISM — "Regard your neighbor's gain as your own gain; and regard 

your neighbor's loss as your own loss." 
10. ZOROASTRIANISM— "That nature is good only when it shall not do 
to another what is not good for its own self." 

THE ELEVENTH RELIGION, missing from that list, is Shinto, the religion of 
Imperial Japan. Shinto has no Golden Rule. 

Most of us regard the Golden Ruie as the chief, at least the most practical, 
part of our religion. It gives us respect for the other fellow's religion to know 
that he, too, has the Golden Rule. 

The fact that the Golden Rule has been taught by many religions, in ages, 
shows that the mind of man has always seen that, by the very nature of hu- 
manity, we are bound to live together. 

Brotherhood, then, is not something we may choose or not choose, if we 
would live. Inescapably, we are brothers and must live as such or suffer the 
consequences. 




64 



THESE ARE THE WORDS" . . .(D'Vorim) 



And what may they be? "These are the Words" suggestive of Israel's 
ancient, medieval, and modern wisdom, random reflections on books, 
character, education, science, faith, family, friendship, et al, from Bible and 
Talmund as well as from "Contemporary Commentary" or "Modern 
Midrash." 

"These are the words" then which begin Book Five of the Bible and 
which end Book Five of our Temple Bibilog. 




A PREFACE TO BOOKS: 

(FROM A MEDIEVAL LEGACY) 

Some notion of the high regard in which the Jew held the Book in partic- 
ular and books in general may be obtained from even the most casual survey 
of the traditions in the care of books that have been in vogue for centuries. 

Some of the most venerable practices were as follows: It was prohibited to 
lay anything upon a book, not even a volume of oral law of the Prophets. Nor 
was it permitted to sit on a bench upon which a book is lying. "And anyone 
who is more rigid — even to the slightest degree- -in the respect he pays to 
books, such a one is indeed honored." Needless to say, it was prohibited to 
place a book on the floor. A book which has fallen on the ground must be 
picked up at once and kissed. 

If two men are walking together, and one is carrying a book, the latter has 
priority in going in or out of a door. If it become necessary" to save books and 
other precious valuables from fire or water, books must be saved first, for it is 
written "Honor the Lord more than your wealth." A teacher, in his anger toward 
a pupil, may not strike him with a book, nor may the pupil protect himself with 
a book, unless it be for the protection of life or limb. A man may not use a book 
in order to shield himself from the sun or smoke or cover himself so that he 
would not be seen. If ink happens to fall upon a book and on a garment — even 
if the garment be ever so precious — he must first clean the book. It is prohibited 
to write in a book. One may not touch the Ecok unless he has first thoroughly 
cleaned his fingers; if he has kissed his children whose faces are not altogether 
clean, he may not immediately alter kiss the Book. One may not permit a child 
to play upon a table set aside for the use of books. 

When buying a book, one must not say, "It is not good," "It is too expensive," 
of a book which is not properly proof-read, it is not permitted to say, "It ought 
to be burned" — but rather "It ought to be hidden." Two brothers who are divid- 
ing their father's heritage may not say one to the other, "You take the book and 
I will take the dog." 

It is necessary that books be dusted from time to time. Cases and cabinets 
and shelvings used for housing sacred books are considered as sacred articles 
and when they are no longer fit for use, must be hidden away and not per- 
mitted to be used for any other purpose than for the keeping of books. Fine 
books ought to be graced with a fine binding, and books ought to be kept in 
fine cases. Sacred books are not to be kept with secular in the same case. 

65 



ANCIENT BIBLICAL ADAGES 



Oppression turneth a wise man into a fool; and a fight destroyeth judgment 

There is not a righteous man upon earth who always does good and never 
sins. 

In the day of prosperity be joyful; in the day of adversity be hopeful. 

Wisdom is better for a country than weapons of war; but ignorance, even 
among a small number, is a great loss to a country. 

Whoso keepeth his mouth and his tongue keepeth his soul from trouble. 

Men do not despise a thief, if he steals to satisfy his hunger. 

Hatred stirreth up strife; but love covereth all transgression. 

Whoso loveth knowledge, loveth correction; but he who is brutish hateth 
reproof. 

The wages of the righteous is life; the increase of the wicked is sin. 

Where no wise direction is, a people falleth; but in the multitude of counsel- 
lors there is safety. 

A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches. 

Hear counsel and receive instruction that thou mayest be wise in thine 
old age. 

Reprove not a scorner lest he hate thee. Reprove a wise man and he will 
love thee. 

A virtuous woman is a crown to her husband; but she that doeth shame- 
fully is as rottenness in his bones. 

Learn to do well, seek justice, relieve the oppressed, judge the orphan 
rightfully and plead for the widow. 

Prosperity retards and weakens religion, while depression promotes and 
strengthens it. 

A rebuke entereth deeper into a man of understanding than a hundred 
stripes into a fool. 

Rejoice not when thine enemy falleth, and let not thy heart be glad when 
he stumbleth. 

Do not be too frequent a visitor in thy neighbor's house, lest he be sated 
with thee and hate thee. 

Boast not of tomorrow for thou knowest not what the next day may bring 
forth. 

Let another man praise thee and not thine own mouth. 

To do justice and righteousness is more acceptable to the Lord than sacri- 
fice. 

There are friends that one hath to his own hurt; but a loving friend sticketh 
closer than a brother. 

Happy is the many who findth wisdom and the man who obtaineth under- 
standing. 

There is he who pretendeth himself rich yet hath nothing; there is he who 
pretendeth himself poor yet hath great wealth. 

The wise shall inherit honor; but as for the fools they carry away shame. 

He that is greedy of gain troubleth his own house; but he that hateth even 
gifts shall live cheerfully. 

Better a little with righteousness than great revenue with injustice. 

Where there is no vision the people perish; but he that keepeth the law 
happy is he. 

Buy the truth and sell it not; also wisdom, instruction, and understanding. 

Death and life are in the power of the tongue, and they that indulge it 
shall eat the fruit thereof. 

Better is a dry morsel and quietness therewith, than a house full of feasting 
with strife. 



6b 



Make no friendship with a man that is given to anger, and with a wrath- 
ful man thou shall not go. 

Remove not the ancient landmark which thy fathers have set. 

Many waters cannot quench love, neither can the floods drown it. If a 
man would give all the substance of his house for love, he would be utterly 
contemned. 

Better it is to be a lowly spirit with the humble than to divide the spoil with 
the proud. 

He who despiseth his neighbor, sinneth; but he who is gracious unto the 
humble, happy is he. 

Most men will proclaim their own goodness; but a faithful man who can 
find? 

A word fitly spoken is like apples of gold in settings of silver. 

Iron sharpeneth iron; so a man sharpeneth the^countenance of his friend. 

If thou meet thine enemy's ox or his donkey going astray, thou shalt surely 
bring it back to him. 

Righteousness exalteth a nation, but sin is a reproach to any people. 

The stranger that sojourneth with you shall be as a home-born among you 
and thou shalt love him as thyself. 

And proclaim liberty throughout the land and unto all the inhabitants 
thereof. 

Justice shalt thou pursue so that thou mayest inherit the land, which the 
Lord giveth thee. 

Wash yourself, make yourself clean, put away the evil of your doings; 
from before mine eyes cease to do evil. 

The vile man shall no more be called liberal, nor the churl said to be noble. 

Hate the evil, and love the good, and establish justice in the gate. 

Let justice well up as waters, and righteousness as a mighty stream. 

Woe unto him that buildeth his house by unrighteousness, and his 
chambers by injustice, that useth his neighbor's service without wages, and 
giveth him not his hire. 

Have we not all one father? Hath not one God created us? Why do we 
deal treacherously every man against his brother. 

The light of the righteous rejoiceth; but the lamp of the wicked shall be 
put out. 

Hope deferred maketh the heart sick; but desire fulfilled is a tree of life. 

Who is the man that desireth life, and loveth the days that he may see 
good therein? Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips from speaking guile. 
Depart from evil and do good; seek peace and prusue it. 

Devise not evil against thy neighbor seeing that he dwelleth securely by 
thee. 

Envy thou not the man of violence and choose none of his ways. 

Better is the poor that walketh in his integrity, than he that is perverse in 
his ways, though he be rich. 

A man that flattereth his neighbor spreadeth a net for his steps. 

Judge the poor and the fatherless; do justice to the afflicted, and the desti- 
tute; rescue the poor and the needy, deliver them out of the hand of the wicked. 

Happy are they that keep justice; that do righteousness at all times. 

Is wisdom with aged men, and understanding in length of days? 

The way of a fool is straight in his own eyes; but he who is wise hearkeneth 
unto counsel. 

My people have gone into captivity for lack of knowledge. 

Confidence is an unfaithful friend, in time of trouble, is like a broken tooth 
and a foot out of joint. 

How much better it is to get wisdom than gold, yea, to get understanding 
Is rather to be chosen than silver. 



67 



POPULAR PROVERBS FROM THE TALMUD 



(Selected from Agadic section of the Talmud) 



He who gives charity in secret is greater than Moses himself. 

The birds in the air even despise the miser. 

There are three crowns; of the law, the priesthood, the kingship; but the 
crown of a good name is greater than they all. 

To slander is to murder. 

When the thief has no opportunity for stealing, he considers himself an 
honest man. 

Thy friend has a friend, and thy friend's friend has a friend; be discreet 

The soldiers fight, and yet the kings are heroes! 

If there is anything bad about you, say it to yourself. 

It is a good sign in man to be capable of being ashamed. 

If you wish to hang yourself, choose a big tree. 

Get your living by skinning carcases in the street, if you cannot other- 
wise, and do not say, I am a priest, I am a great man; this work would not 
befit my dignity. 

Youth is a garland of roses, age is a crov/n of thorns. 

Not the place honors the man, but the man the place. 

Whosoever runs after greatness, greatness runs away from him; he who 
shuns greatness, greatness follows him. 

Commit a sin twice, and you will think it perfectly allowable. 

He who knows the facts, yet does not testify in favor of his neighbor can- 
not be punished legally, but is guilty morally. 

Rabbi Samuel says: It is forbidden to steal the good opinion of one's 
fellowman, even that of a non-believer. 

There is nothing more important than the preservation of human life. 

The law of the land is supreme. 

No man can testify against himself. 

Never break thy promise to a child, lest thou teach it to speak falsely; 
as it is written; "They have taught their tongue to speak lies." 

He who gives his young daughter in marriage to an old man to gain a 
material benefit thereby, breaks the commandment: "Thou shalt not dishonor 
thy own daughter." 

He who gives his daughter to an ignorant man, might as well have her 
tied and thrown before a lion. 

The child loves its mother more than its father. It fears its father more 
than its mother. 

Whosoever lives unmarried, lives without joy, without comfort, without 
blessing. 

If thy wife is small, bend down to her and whisper in her ear. 

It is woman alone through whom God's blessings are vouchsafed to a 
house. 

The house that does not open to the poor shall open to the physician. 

Mar Ukba used to send four hundred zizim to a certain poor family in 
his neighborhood. One day his son reported to him that when he visited the 
home to deliver the money, found the head of the family drinking very ex- 
pensive wine. "This indicated," said Mar Ukba, "that he has been accustomed 
to a higher standard of living. I shall, therefore, double his allowance in the 
future." 

Let thy neighbor's house be as dear to thee as thine own. 



68 



Even a non-believer who takes up the study of science shall be considered 
equal to the high priest. For the law says: "Those are the things that man 
should do in order to have life everlasting. It does not say: priest, Levite, 
Israelite, but man — any manl It is well to study, even though it first be with evil 
intent; for science rewards its study with love and affection, and that which 
was started with evil intent, is continued with good intentions thereafter. 

Science and learning will bring peace to the world. 

Knowledge is not the main thing in life, but the use of it. 

Woe to the wise and learned man who are not virtuous. Woe unto him 
who has no dwelling and tries to build a door to it. 

He who educates a child deserves the name "father," better than he who 
merely begat it. 

Rabbi Chanina said: I have learned much from my teachers, more from 
my companions, but most from my pupils. 

Why was man created on the last day of the week? In order that he 
be taught modesty. For should he ever attempt to exalt himself, he would be 
told that even a fly preceded him in creation. 

The sword comes into the world because of three things: because of justice 
being delayed, because of justice being perverted, because of those who 
render wrong decisions. 

The liar is not believed even when he tells the truth. 

No man is envious of his son or pupil. 

The world can exist without wine, but not without water. 

Judge all men by their merits. 

Not learning but doing is the chief thing. 

Pass not judgment upon thy neighbor until thou hast come into his place. 

Where there are no men, strive thou to be a man. 

It is not incumbent upon thee to complete the work, but neither art thou 
at liberty to desist from it altogether. 

Be rather a tail to lions than a head to foxes. 

The characer of a man may be recognized by three things — his cup, his 
purse, and his anger. 

Evil inclination is at first slender as a spider's thread, and then strong as 
a rope. The greater the man, the more violent his passion. 

The famine lasted for years, but it did not enter the house of the working 
man. Better to be a servant in the temple of an idol than fo take alms. 

He who remains unwed does not deserve the name "man!" For the Bible 
says: "Man and wife created He them and He called their name 'Man'." 

Peace in the home is the foundation of marital happiness. 

When married people are true and faithful to each other, then God dwells 
with them and blesses them. 

Do not grieve your wife without cause, for tears come easy with her. 

If you have made a promise to a child, keep it! For otherwise it learns 
to lie. 

Prayer is Israel's only weapon, weapon inherited from its fathers, a 
weapon tried in a thousand battles. 

Hospitality is the most important part of Divine worship. 

The Sabbath may be violated for the sake of the living; even in the case 
of a newly born babe; but not for the sake of the dead, even if it be David, 
King of Israel. 

"Love thy neighbor as thyself." Rabbi Akiba remarked: This is one of 
the fundamental principles of the Torah. 

Rabbi Simeon said: There are three crowns, the crown of the Torah, the 
crown of the priesthood, the crown of royalty: yet the crown of a good name 
excelleth them all. 



69 



JEWISH MEDIEVAL MAXIMS 



(Culled frcm Works on Popular Aphorisms) 



The Jews give both to build the Temple and to make the golden calf. 
Israel is compared to the stars of heaven and to the dust of earth; if it rises, 
it rises to the stars, and if it falls, it falls even to the dust. The true Jew is dis- 
tinguished for three qualities: sympathy, modesty, and benevolence. 

So live that people may speak well of thee at thy grave. The just needs 
no memorial, for his deeds are his monument. 

If thou borrowest money, thou dost purchase thee an enemy. 

If a poor man eat a chicken, either he is sick or the chicken is sick. 

When a Jew is hungry, he sings; when the courtier of the castle is hungry, 
he whistles; when the peasant is hungry, he beats his wife. 

If only two Jews remained in the world, one would summon to the syna- 
gogue and the other would go there. 

Every man knows that he must die, but no one believes it. 

Better a noble death than a wretched life. 

A man can bear more than ten oxen can draw. 

God forbid that we should experience all that we are able to bear. 

Ten enemies can not do a man the harm that he does to himself. 

A man can eat alone, but not work alone. 

The wife exalteth her husband and casteth him down. 

Give thine ear to all, thy hands to thy friends, but thy lips only to thy wife. 

A third person may not interfere between two that sleep on the same pillow. 

Fools generally have pretty wives. 

Grace is worth more than beauty. 

Love tastes sweet, but only with bread. 

Benevolence is better than sacrifice. 

The beggar doth more for the giver than the giver for the beggar. 

Who practiceth friendship entertaineth God Himself. 

If thou spitteth into the air, thy spittle will fall on thine own face. 

Pride is a mask for faults. 

If one in the family has hanged himself, say not unto them "Hang up the 
fish" for this might be deemed an allusion. Be persecuted rather than 
persecute. 

A word is worth one dinar, silence is worth two. Like a bee, a word has 
honey in its sting. 

The tongue of slander kills three: him who is slandered, him who slanders, 
and him who listens. 



70 



TRUISMS OF TODAY 

Suggestive Aphorisms oi the Day and Decade 



Much of our money is spent in the effort to make ourselves believe that 
other people believe us superior to themselves. 

On the day of my condemnation, I shall be the chief of my condemners. 

Enslavement to pleasure is less perilous than enslavement to ambition. 

The love of praise precludes the love of mankind. 

Many are successful, but few are serene though unsuccessful. 

Success is glorious. Still more glorious is the resignation to defeat. 

The status of him who does not is the same as that of him who can not. 

The dirty hand that hurls the bomb is not more objectionable than the 
clean hand that imposes the muzzle. 

Philosophers must repair the damage caused by the orators. 

The past is the raw material out of which the future is made. 

Submission to wrong? How can there be any other kind of submission? 
Right requires no submission. 

The message may be sound though the messenger may be not sound. 

Our grievances against other are displaced grievances against ourselves. 

Wishes unextinguished in achievement can be extinguished in renuncia- 
tion. 

A fool's hell is no wiser than a fool's paradise. 

It is one of the illusions of life, the feeling that our success makes others 
like us and our failure makes others dislike us. 

The heart that has suffered earthly woes can not be content with earthly 
joys. 

Better, O God, that frustrated I turn to Thee than successful from Thee. 

Saintliness is social realism. 

Scientific ignorance is not religious knowledge. 

A service is not religion. At its best it is a groping for religion; at its 
worst it is a substitute for religion. 

A sacrifice is a sacrifice only for those who are unwilling to make it. 

The person that hates you, respect him. He is God's messenger sent to 
ransom your soul. 

Religion can not become a reality until it ceases to become a mask. 

The bi-products of the finite are the products of the Infinite. 

"I fear no evil." Nay, it is the good times that are perilous. 

Every church persecutes those who take its professions too seriously. 

If you would climb the stairs to God, you must keep close to the bannisters 
of truth. 

Standing on a heap of wreckage, I touch the stars. 

Where anything ends, there God begins anew. 

— A. Cronbach 

Religion must be used. Thas is what it is here for. Not to be petted, and 
cuddled, and adorned, and worshipped for its own sake, but to be used for 
the fulfillment of man's destiny upon this earth. 

— John H. Holmes 

There are those who look askance at recreation services. To them we 
can only say: Is there any investment quite so sound as the conservation 
of our human resources through more adequate outdoor recreation? 

— Thomas E. Dewey 

The manner in which the hours of freedom are spent determines, no less 
than labor and war, the moral worth of a nation. 

— Maurice Maeterlinck 



71 



Start where you are with what you have; make something of it; never be 
satisfied. 

— George Washington Carver 
We cannot turn the clock back to unmake the conditions which have 
given rise to twentieth-century inherited prejudices, but we can refuse to 
accept the false notion that hate or fear of each other is an inevitable trait 
of human nature. 

— Mildred Horton 
Analyzing what you haven't got as well as what you have is a necessary 
ingredient of a career. 

— Grace Moore 
Nowadays, with our machine-made leisure, there could be a Renaissance, 
except for a hangover from the period when leisure was considered bad 
for people. Activities in spare time are thought cf as valuable for preventing 
delinquency or staving off boredom, and that is a negative attitude. I'd 
rather think of these activities as an outlet for creative powers, a means of 
release, so that citizens may rise out of standardized mediocrity and . . . fulfill 
themselves. 

— Mark McCloskey 
Heaven is not a mythical place; it can be found right down in the heart 
of the man who has found the work he loves and the woman he loves. 

— Helen Rowland 
Whatever is right or wrong in our world is exactly what is right or wrong 
in the individual human heart. 

— Margaret Leckie 
Knowing how to read does not mean that one reads or even thinks. 

— Pearl Buck 
I hold the unconquerable belief that science and peace will triumph over 
ignorance and war, that nations will come together not to delay but to con- 
struct, and that the future belongs to those who accomplish most for humanity. 

— Louis Pasteur 
The sacred rights of man are not to be rummaged from among old parch- 
ments, or musty records. They are written as with a sunbeam in the whole 
volume of human nature by the hand of divinity itself and can never be erased 
by mortal power. 

■ — Alexander Hamilton 
We need justice. We need toleration, honesty and moral courage. These 
are modern virtues without which we cannot hope to control the forces science 
has let loose among us. 

—I.A.R. Wylie 
The four cornerstones of character on which the structure of this nation 
was built are: Initiative, Imagination, Individuality and Independence. 

— Eddie Rickenbacker 
It is not the facts which guide the conduct of men, but their opinions about 
facts; which may be entirely wrong. We can only make them right by dis- 
cussion. 

— Norman Angell 
No theory of the universe can be satisfactory which does not adequately 
account for the phenomena of life, especially in that richest form which finds 
expression in human personality. 

—B. H. Streeter 



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DATE DUE 










































































































































DEMCO 38-297 



Duke University Libraries 




D02469006R 



H90069t-£0a 




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